An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution
Joan A. Reid
Study utilising modelling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviours or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioural and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.
Missing and Exploited Children
M. Alexis Kennedy
Children who leave home as runaways or are forced from their homes without alternative placements (thrownaways) are at great risk for being sexually exploited through commercial sexual activity or prostitution.
Child Exploitation in the 21st Century
Daniel D. Broughton
New technology has changed how adults take advantage of children with a variety of new tools available. Victimisation has taken on new characteristics and internet, digital photography and ease of travel have all had an impact.
Exploited vulnerability: Legal and psychological perspectives on child sex trafficking victims
Reid, J. A., & Jones, S.
A review of the historical, neurological, and developmental vulnerabilities typical of child sex trafficking victims reveals serious doubts regarding their ability to control their choices or escape from a trafficker. The uniform shielding of all child victims of sex trafficking from legal culpability for the criminal conduct of traffickers is recommended.
Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention
Sibnath Deb, Aparna Mukherjee, Ben Mathews
Study to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and then used for commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression from these girls was investigated.
The Tragedy and Horror of Human Trafficking of Children and Youth.
Betz, C. L
The extent to which children and youth are trafficked is difficult to estimate because these victims are hidden, silenced and forced to endure continued abuse creating fear and submissiveness. The estimates of children who are trafficking victims range from 600,000 to over 2 million.
Precious Children in a Heartless World? The Complexities of Child Trafficking in Marseille
Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
Examines how implicit notions in the concepts of "children" and "home" influence the study of child trafficking.
Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system
Rowena Fong, Jodi Berger Cardoso
An overall analysis and overview of child trafficking in the USA.
Guardianship for Children Deprived of Parental Care
Handbook designed to help standardise guardianship practice, ensuring also that it is better equipped to deal with the specific needs of child victims of trafficking.
Lost kids, lost futures. The European Union's response to Child Trafficking
Mirjam Van Reisen, Ana Stefanovic
Paper looking at how the European Union (EU) has chosen to respond to this challenge and assesses critically the legal, policy and implementation framework put in place to fight child trafficking.
Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration
Eglantina Gjermeni, Mary P.Van Hook, Saemira Gjipali, Lindita Xhillari, Fatjon Lungu, Anila Hazizi
Study to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking experience.
A Broad Vision to Put Children First : Child Trafficking in Europe
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
Child trafficking occurs in virtually all countries in Europe. Children are trafficked across borders, but they are also trafficked within countries. Internal trafficking is reported to occur in every second European country.
Study on high-risk groups for trafficking in human beings
Alessandra Cancedda (Ecorys), Barbara De Micheli (Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini), Dafina Dimitrova (Ecorys) and Brigitte Slot (Ecorys)
his study is a deliverable of the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016, which recognised that vulnerable groups, such as children, are at greater risk of human trafficking.
Beyond a Snapshot: Learning lessons from the Terre des Hommes International Campaign against Child Trafficking (2001-2011)
Review of TDH campaign including evaluations, publications and views of TDH staff. Campaign against child trafficking and improvements in methods and programmes to reduce child trafficking and improve protection of children who had been trafficked.
Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices
Report identifying that the EU must provide better legislation to combat child trafficking and that the protection and care of victims must be improved.
Strategic Threat Assessment on Child Trafficking in the UK
Report providing an assessment of national strategic trends, informs police, UKBA, children's services, NGOs. Aids prevention and prosecution of those exploiting children. Recommends partnerships between agencies and best practice.
Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked
Guidance on how professionals should act when in contact with young children that been trafficked.
Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK
Overview of child trafficking in the UK. Highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's immigration status, combining to make these children vulnerable to further harm and at risk from the influence of their traffickers.
Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it
Report focusing on what NGOs can do, with the intention of showing them what techniques there are agreement on, and what need further discussion.
Moving children? Child trafficking, child migration, and child rights
Julia O'Connell Davidson
An article aiming to update the reader with the latest information regarding the latest trends, themes and patterns in child trafficking.
The Presentation of Child Trafficking in the UK: An Old and New Moral Panic?
Cree, V. E, Clapton G and Smith M
Explores the ways in which the highly emotive subject of child trafficking is presented in the UK. Examining the way the issue has been tackled at two moments in time: the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st century.
Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution
Examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems.
Global Child Trafficking
Review of global child trafficking, severity, causes, documentation, what can be done and prevention from the perspective of the USA
Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK
ECPAT UK and Missing People
Following on from their ground-breaking 2016 report Heading Back to Harm, leading charities ECPAT UK and Missing People have revisited the issue using 2017 data to assess what has changed. This report shows that trafficked and unaccompanied children are still going missing from care at an alarmingly high rate.
Identifying child victims of trafficking. Towards solutions and resolutions
Elzbieta M. Gozdziak
Tackles the challenges of identifying trafficked children and offers recommandations in order to advance toward solutions and resolutions.
Rumours of Child Trafficking after Natural Disasters
Article reviewing how rumours of child trafficking have surfaced quickly after every major natural disaster since the Asian tsunami (although usually proved false or exaggerated).
A handbook on planning projects to prevent child trafficking
A handbook aimed at strengthening the protection of children and addressing the needs of children victim of child trafficking.
"Exploring Internal Child Sex Trafficking Networks Using Social Network Analysis"
Eleanor Cockbain, Helen Brayley, Gloria Laycock
A study using social network analysis to explore internal trafficking of children intended for sexual exploitation.
Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people
Pearce, J. J., Hynes, P., and Bovarnick, S.
Review of international and UK literature, report on focus groups and interviews of practitioners from children's services, analysis of children and young people trafficked into the UK and within the UK for sexual exploitation.
Kids abroad: ignore them, abuse them or protect them?
Focuses on the experience of young people who leave home or travel abroad to seek work or a better life and also on children who are sent away from home by their parents. It explores initiatives that reduce the likelihood that such children will be subjected to exploitation.
Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking
Article examines challenges in the treatment of child survivors of human trafficking. Integrating psychoanalytic theory with models of self-development from the cognitive developmental psychology literature, the paper offers a clinical case presentation of an 11-year-old survivor
Working with Trafficked Children and Young People: Complexities in Practice
Pearce, J. J
Argues for a review of children's services responses to trafficked children based on a literature search, focus groups, interviews and case studies. Highlights variations in practitioners understanding of trafficking, smuggling, internal trafficking.
What YOU can do to protect children on the move
Handbook to enable organisations to review how they prevent child trafficking and exploitation, and whether they ensure that the best interests of the child guide their activities
Improving & Monitoring Protection Systems Against Child Trafficking and Exploitation/ TRANSITIONAL ANALYSIS
The IMPACT study notes that child rights violation also persists in Europe, despite the body of international, regional and national legal instruments adopted across the region to prohibit the practice and assist child victims
Protection of children and vulnerable adults: police disclosure of damaging allegations
Bennion, F. A
Explores the nature and methods of abuse in child trafficking. It also explores the protection and treatment offered to these vulnerable children.
Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands
Interviews with social services, other agencies and voluntary sector organisations. Across the three regions there were 80 reported cases of known or suspected child victims of trafficking. 60% of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found.
The SIAMSECT files
Vermuelen, G., Balcaen, A., Di Nicola, A., & Cauduro, A.
Development of EU template and collection plan for statistical information and analysis on missing and sexually exploited children and trafficking in human beings in order to have reliable and comparable collection and analysis of indicators and other data, as well as enabling communication between EU, other EU bodies and third party organisations.
Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe
Presents and summarises sources of information regarding the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes within Europe. Highlights the need for education of social care professionals regarding this issue and shows the current gaps within the system.
The New UN Trafficking Protocol
Janice G. Raymond
Summarizes the key points of the new trafficking in persons protocol, the debate over the definition of trafficking, which was the most contentious part of the Protocol, how the Protocol is being interpreted, and its implications for regional and national policy against human trafficking
Study on prevention initiatives on trafficking in human beings
Among the key findings of the study is that there is no go-standard for assessing the impact of prevention actions but rather a comprehensive and contextual approach should be followed.
Sexual Exploitation: "Internal Trafficking" of Children and Young People at risk in the North East and Cumbria
Study exploring the internal trafficking of children and young people for the purpose of sexual exploitation across the North East and Cumbria.
Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis
Azhar Abu-Ali, Mona Al-Bahar
Tackles social aspects of child trafficking including the phenomenon of the feminization of trafficking, and the psychological consequences experienced by the child survivor.
The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking
Brayley, H., Cockbain, E., & Laycock, G
Explores how Crime Scripting can benefit crime investigations. This method has recently been used for investigations regarding child sex trafficking.
Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe: Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking
Roberto Forin, International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) and Claire Healy (ICMPD).
Trafficking along Migration Routes to Europe:
Bridging the Gap between Migration, Asylum and Anti-Trafficking
The link between: Trafficked children and missing
Every year approximately 250,000 people are reported missing to the police and other agencies across the UK. About two thirds of these reports will be children under 18 (Home Office: 2010), and a proportion of will have been victims of trafficking.