Missing Children Publication Hub

The publications in this section contain the results of our research as well as curated research on topics and issues relevant to missing children in Europe and the world. Example of the type of research you can find are understanding the causes of the different types of missing children cases in Europe, policy on missing children, search and rescue operations and family support. The menu and submenu options below will help you find what you're looking for.

If you'd like to share relevant research with us, please send the title, a link and description of the research to info@missingchildreneurope.eu.

Missing Children Publication Hub

Child Sexual Exploitation

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Commercial child sexual exploitation online (by Anon)



Youtube video actors providing real statement s by a victim and an abuser, of child sexual abuse



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  • The role of central authorities in the application of the 1980 Hague Convention on child abduction: A critical analysis of a genuine area of public international law
    The role of central authorities in the application of the 1980 Hague Convention on child abduction: A critical analysis of a genuine area of public international law by Dr. Kutlay TELLİ
    This article mainly intends to provide a roadmap for Central Authorities regarding the return requests within the meaning of the Hague Convention
  • The effectiveness of victim resistance strategies against stranger child abduction:an analysis of attempted and completed cases
    The effectiveness of victim resistance strategies against stranger child abduction:an analysis of attempted and completed cases by Karen Shalev Greene
    This article examines resistance strategies thought to reduce the likelihood that a child will be able to overcome an attempted stranger child abduction event.
  • The Hague Child Abduction Convention: A Critical Analysis
    The Hague Child Abduction Convention: A Critical Analysis by Rhona Schuz
    Provides an up-to-date discussion of the international operation of the Abduction Convention together with in-depth critical academic analysis in light of the objectives of the Convention and other relevant legal norms, such as the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Examining 19 years of officially reported child abduction incidents (1995–2013): employing a four category typology of abduction
    Examining 19 years of officially reported child abduction incidents (1995–2013): employing a four category typology of abduction by Jeffrey A. Walsha, Jessie L. Krienerta, Cayla L. Comensa
    Child abduction has generated extensive media attention due to deep-seated fear elicited by infamous incidents. This study emphasizes differences across abductors/victims in a four category relationship-based typology, including a newer category – ‘intimate partner abductions’.
  • International child abduction cases in Hungary: A comprehensive summary of statistics, legal framework and important case law
    International child abduction cases in Hungary: A comprehensive summary of statistics, legal framework and important case law by Tamás Dezső Ziegler
    This article summarizes the background of child abduction cases related to Hungary, giving a comprehensive analysis of such cases between the period of 2000 and 2014.
  • Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked
    Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked by Anon
    Guidance on how professionals should act when in contact with young children that been trafficked.
  • The wellbeing of children in cases of international child abduction
    The wellbeing of children in cases of international child abduction by Hilde Demarré
    Presentation ''The wellbeing of children in cases of international child abduction'' was delivered at the conference was organised by the School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, partnered with the Centre for the Study of Missing Persons at Portsmouth University and sponsored by WPC Software and the UK Missing Person’s Unit.
  • Best practice for launching a cross-border child abduction alert
    Best practice for launching a cross-border child abduction alert by Anon
    Describes and documents, based on experiences in several Member States, the key elements of a "child abduction alert" mechanism.
  • PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR CHILD ABDUCTION BY USING IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM ON INTEL GALILEO BOARD
    PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR CHILD ABDUCTION BY USING IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM ON INTEL GALILEO BOARD by NOOR HASNI BINTI ABD HADI, HARIYANTI BINTI MOHD SALEH & SALINA BINTI MOHD ASI
    This paper describes a real-time system based on image processing algorithms by using Active Appearance Model technique for alignment process. The motivation of this research is the need for reducing children abduction cases.
  • The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection?
    The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection? by Peter McEleavy
    This article analyses the Grand Chamber judgments in Neulinger and X v. Latvia and considers how compliance with Article 8 ECHR should be achieved in the application of the Hague Convention; prioritising return or reflection? In so doing it also reflects on whether a summary return mechanism can continue to accord with twenty-first century expectations and norms.
  • The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection?
    The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection? by Peter McEleavy
    This article analyses the Grand Chamber judgments in Neulinger and X v. Latvia and considers how compliance with Article 8 ECHR should be achieved in the application of the Hague Convention; prioritising return or reflection?
  • International Parental Child Abduction and Mediation
    International Parental Child Abduction and Mediation by Nuria González Martín
    The goal of this article is, first, to analyze the operation of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in the context of its Guide to Good Practice on Mediation to determine whether such guide will promote Mediation as a useful method for family conflict resolution in cases of international child abduction by one of the parents.
  • The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction?
    The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction? by Zgoba, K.
    Outlines the history and activation process of the Amber Alert, as well as the challenges and advantages experienced by the agencies involved.
  • Behind the Curtains of International Child Abduction Proceedings
    Behind the Curtains of International Child Abduction Proceedings by Anca Crihana, Anca-Raluca Sas & Tudor-Cristian Ciobanu
    Have you ever heard about parents abducting their own child to another country? A parent takes away his child from the other parent or he refuses to return the child. What about the child’s best interests? What does the child actually want? What is his/her perspective on the abduction? Is it important to hear the voice of the child? Should the judge give weight to his/her testimony?
  • Stranger child abduction and guardianship: Accompaniment and surveillance in attempted and completed cases
    Stranger child abduction and guardianship: Accompaniment and surveillance in attempted and completed cases by Craig J. R. Collie, Karen Shalev Greene
    he Routine Activity Theory construct of capable guardianship is used to examine the features of 78 cases of stranger child abduction, using an outcome-based approach to establishing the effectiveness of various potential sources of guardianship in preventing abduction attempts from becoming completed, and to test widely held and taught beliefs on this subject.
  • Keeping mother alive: Psychotherapy with a teenage mother following human trafficking
    Keeping mother alive: Psychotherapy with a teenage mother following human trafficking by Kleinschmidt, L
    Describes therapy with an adolescent girl and her infant daughter, following the girl's escape from illegal detention, physical abuse and forced prostitution, after she was trafficked to the UK from Eastern Europe.
  • Child Exploitation in the 21st Century
    Child Exploitation in the 21st Century by Daniel D. Broughton
    New technology has changed how adults take advantage of children with a variety of new tools available. Victimisation has taken on new characteristics and internet, digital photography and ease of travel have all had an impact.
  • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities' toolkit to stop sexual violence against children
    Congress of Local and Regional Authorities' toolkit to stop sexual violence against children by Anon
    The Congress has produced a campaign toolkit in 22 language versions to encourage local and regional authorities in Europe to sign up to the Pact of Towns and Regions to Stop Sexual Violence against Children and take measures at local and regional level.
  • Exploited vulnerability: Legal and psychological perspectives on child sex trafficking victims
    Exploited vulnerability: Legal and psychological perspectives on child sex trafficking victims by Reid, J. A., & Jones, S.
    A review of the historical, neurological, and developmental vulnerabilities typical of child sex trafficking victims reveals serious doubts regarding their ability to control their choices or escape from a trafficker. The uniform shielding of all child victims of sex trafficking from legal culpability for the criminal conduct of traffickers is recommended.
  • Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention
    Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention by Sibnath Deb, Aparna Mukherjee, Ben Mathews
    Study to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and then used for commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression from these girls was investigated.
  • Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution
    Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution by Alyson Brown
    Examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems.
  • "Exploring Internal Child Sex Trafficking Networks Using Social Network Analysis" by Eleanor Cockbain, Helen Brayley, Gloria Laycock
    A study using social network analysis to explore internal trafficking of children intended for sexual exploitation.
  • Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people
    Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people by Pearce, J. J., Hynes, P., and Bovarnick, S.
    Review of international and UK literature, report on focus groups and interviews of practitioners from children's services, analysis of children and young people trafficked into the UK and within the UK for sexual exploitation.
  • Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking
    Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking by Bennett-Murphy
    Article examines challenges in the treatment of child survivors of human trafficking. Integrating psychoanalytic theory with models of self-development from the cognitive developmental psychology literature, the paper offers a clinical case presentation of an 11-year-old survivor
  • Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands
    Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands by Beddoe, C
    Interviews with social services, other agencies and voluntary sector organisations. Across the three regions there were 80 reported cases of known or suspected child victims of trafficking. 60% of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found.
  • A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls
    A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls by Laurel D. Edinburgh, Elizabeth M. Saewyc
    This study both describes a home-visiting intervention program for young, sexually assaulted runaways (10 - 14 years old) and provides preliminary outcomes from the first 20 female participants.
  • Becoming Sweetie: a novel approach to stopping the global rise of Webcam Child Sex Tourism
    Becoming Sweetie: a novel approach to stopping the global rise of Webcam Child Sex Tourism by Anon
    Terre des Hommes Netherlands' four researchers identified 1,000 predators in 10 weeks. Call for all government agencies in charge of justice to identify and convict 100,000 predators committing the crime of WCST before the end of 2014
  • Children Rough Sleepers in the EU
    Children Rough Sleepers in the EU by Professor Kate Moss
    Interim report on a project which focuses on homelessness and rough sleeping in children
  • Children Rough Sleepers in Europe : A Research Methodology
    Children Rough Sleepers in Europe : A Research Methodology by Professor Kate Moss and Paramjit Singh
    Paper describing the methodology used in research into homelessness and rough sleeping in children.
  • Whose child now? Fifteen years of working to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the UK
    Whose child now? Fifteen years of working to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the UK by Stacey, L.
    Report exploring the continuing hidden nature of the problem of sexually exploited children and describes what Barnardo's is doing today, while suggesting what action still remains to be taken to further protect exploited children and young people.
  • Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis
    Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis by Azhar Abu-Ali, Mona Al-Bahar
    Tackles social aspects of child trafficking including the phenomenon of the feminization of trafficking, and the psychological consequences experienced by the child survivor.
  • Sexual Exploitation:
    Sexual Exploitation: "Internal Trafficking" of Children and Young People at risk in the North East and Cumbria by Cavener, J
    Study exploring the internal trafficking of children and young people for the purpose of sexual exploitation across the North East and Cumbria.
  • The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking
    The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking by Brayley, H., Cockbain, E., & Laycock, G
    Explores how Crime Scripting can benefit crime investigations. This method has recently been used for investigations regarding child sex trafficking.
  • Still Hidden
    Still Hidden by Nicola Sharp
    The article underlines and explores the possible link between children that go missing and child sexual exploitation.
  • Meeting the Needs of Sexually Exploited Young People in London
    Meeting the Needs of Sexually Exploited Young People in London by Harper, Z, & Scott, S
    A research report based on interviews with social services on the issue of child trafficking, in the UK.
  • Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
    Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse by Susanna Greijer and Jaap Doek
    Communication is of critical importance in our efforts to respect, protect and implement the rights of the child. In order to make this communication with and between children, parents, governmental officials, professionals and volunteers working with or for children as effective as possible, we need to use terms and concepts that all these actors understand and consider respectful.
  • A survey on the transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on combating sexual absue and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography
    A survey on the transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on combating sexual absue and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography by Missing Children Europe, ECPAT, eNasco
    The main objective of the project was to compare the choice of ‘methods and strategies’ developed by Member States in order to achieve the binding results defined by the Directive and to assess them based on the best interests of the child.
  • A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media
    A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media by European Commission
    A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media
  • An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution
    An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution by Joan A. Reid
    Study utilising modelling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviours or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioural and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Missing and Exploited Children
    Missing and Exploited Children by M. Alexis Kennedy
    Children who leave home as runaways or are forced from their homes without alternative placements (thrownaways) are at great risk for being sexually exploited through commercial sexual activity or prostitution.
  • No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home
    No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home by L Hill, J Taylor, F Richards, S Reddington
    Paper exploring the safeguarding concerns and responses for children and young people who run away or go missing from home
  • Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK
    Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK by Bokhari, F
    Overview of child trafficking in the UK. Highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's immigration status, combining to make these children vulnerable to further harm and at risk from the influence of their traffickers.
  • Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it
    Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it by Mike Dottridge
    Report focusing on what NGOs can do, with the intention of showing them what techniques there are agreement on, and what need further discussion.
  • Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK
    Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK by ECPAT UK and Missing People
    Following on from their ground-breaking 2016 report Heading Back to Harm, leading charities ECPAT UK and Missing People have revisited the issue using 2017 data to assess what has changed. This report shows that trafficked and unaccompanied children are still going missing from care at an alarmingly high rate.
  • Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe
    Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe by Manion, K
    Presents and summarises sources of information regarding the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes within Europe. Highlights the need for education of social care professionals regarding this issue and shows the current gaps within the system.
  • Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children
    Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children by UNICEF
    The report sheds light on the prevalence of different forms of violence against children, with global figures and data from 190 countries. Where relevant, data are disaggregated by age and sex, to provide insights into risk and protective factors.



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