Missing Children Publication Hub

The publications in this section contain the results of our research as well as curated research on topics and issues relevant to missing children in Europe and the world. Example of the type of research you can find are understanding the causes of the different types of missing children cases in Europe, policy on missing children, search and rescue operations and family support. The menu and submenu options below will help you find what you're looking for.

If you'd like to share relevant research with us, please send the title, a link and description of the research to info@missingchildreneurope.eu.

Missing Children Publication Hub

Policy & reviews

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The European hotline number for missing children: A practical guide for hotline operators (by Missing Children Europe)



It contains key recommendations and examples of existing practices that every NGO running, or wishing to run, the 116000 hotline can draw inspiration from and make use of.



SIMILAR
  • An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution
    An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution by Joan A. Reid
    Study utilising modelling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviours or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioural and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.
  • No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home
    No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home by L Hill, J Taylor, F Richards, S Reddington
    Paper exploring the safeguarding concerns and responses for children and young people who run away or go missing from home
  • Running from hate to what you think is love: The relationship between running away and child sexual exploitation
    Running from hate to what you think is love: The relationship between running away and child sexual exploitation by Emilie Smeaton
    This report focuses on different cases of sexual exploitation on children. The report has a strong background information, with true examples. It tries to identify the problem of disappearance due to abuse.
  • Vulnerable Children on the run: A European Challenge
    Vulnerable Children on the run: A European Challenge by Martin Houghton-Brown
    Summarizes a speech given by Martin Houghton-Brown given on the subject of children runaways.
  • A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls
    A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls by Laurel D. Edinburgh, Elizabeth M. Saewyc
    This study both describes a home-visiting intervention program for young, sexually assaulted runaways (10 - 14 years old) and provides preliminary outcomes from the first 20 female participants.
  • Repeat reports to the police of missing people: locations and characteristics
    Repeat reports to the police of missing people: locations and characteristics by Dr. Karen Shalev Greene and Professor Carol Hayden
    The locations from which people are reported missing repeatedly in a one year period.
  • What to do when a child goes missing
    What to do when a child goes missing by Gwyther Rees
    This guide gives some simple advice on what steps to take when a child goes missing, based on our experience and the views of the young people involved.
  • HERE TO LISTEN? Return interviews provision for young runaways
    HERE TO LISTEN? Return interviews provision for young runaways by Anon
    Recommendations on return interviews
  • Examining Missing Person Police Reports to Identify the Service Needs of Runaway Youth and Their Families
    Examining Missing Person Police Reports to Identify the Service Needs of Runaway Youth and Their Families by George Patterson
    Examined situational and demographic characteristics in a sample of 47 children missing person police reports.
  • Children Rough Sleepers in the EU
    Children Rough Sleepers in the EU by Professor Kate Moss
    Interim report on a project which focuses on homelessness and rough sleeping in children
  • Children Rough Sleepers in Europe : A Research Methodology
    Children Rough Sleepers in Europe : A Research Methodology by Professor Kate Moss and Paramjit Singh
    Paper describing the methodology used in research into homelessness and rough sleeping in children.
  • Running the Risks: The links between gang involvement and young people going missing
    Running the Risks: The links between gang involvement and young people going missing by Rachel Sturrock and Lucy Holmes
    The UK Missing Persons Bureau estimates that as many as 160,000 children and young people are reported missing every year. Research from the Children’s Society over the past decade has shed some light on this issue and the recent spotlight on CSE has pushed the issue of children and young people going missing up the political agenda. However, the link between gang involvement and going missing from home is still very much unknown, with no specific research or national data collected indicating how many are affected.
  • International Child Abduction - The inadequacies of the Law - Thalia Kruger
    International Child Abduction - The inadequacies of the Law - Thalia Kruger by Thalia Kruger
    Sets the problem of child abduction within its international context. It looks at the families in which abductions took place, how preparations were made for an abduction, the quest for the return of the child (including legal proceedings), and the aftermath of the abductions.
  • My Child? Our Child! Prevention Guide International Child Abduction
    My Child? Our Child! Prevention Guide International Child Abduction by Hilde Demarré
    A guide intended to be a working tool for professionals who deal with international child abduction in their day-to-day practice. It helps detect a possible risk of international child abduction more quickly, to better assess an effective risk and to launch an appropriate assistance.
  • Family Mediation in International Family Conflicts
    Family Mediation in International Family Conflicts by Brunilda Pali & Sandra Voet
    Identifies data on potential informants and target groups of national and international training institutes, medication associations and trainers working in family mediation.
  • Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Mediation
    Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Mediation by Anon
    This guide promotes good practices in mediation and other processes in international family disputes concerning children which fall within the scope of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
  • Transfrontier contact concerning children. General Principles and a Guide to good practice
    Transfrontier contact concerning children. General Principles and a Guide to good practice by Anon
    Guide setting out principles & good practices regarding implementation & application on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, drawing attention to provisions in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children & providing an overall model for constructing an international system of co-operation.
  • Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part IV - Enforcement
    Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part IV - Enforcement by Anon
    Guide with sections on Measures available in the requested State, their content and the conditions for their application; Legal challenges; The effect of legal challenges on the enforceability of return orders; The enforcement procedure and the actors involved; Promoting voluntary compliance; The child; Co-operation among actors within the requested State; Cross-border co-operation to ensure safe return; Training and education
  • Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part III - Preventive Measures
    Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part III - Preventive Measures by Anon
    Deals with preventive measures. Preventing abduction is a key aim of the 1980 Convention and it is widely acknowledged that it is better to prevent abduction than to have to seek a child's return after abduction
  • Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part II - Implementing Measures
    Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part II - Implementing Measures by Anon
    Guide with sections on Key operating principles; The path to signature and ratification or accession; Methods of implementation; Central Authorities; Organisation of the courts; Legal procedural matters; Legal aid and assistance; Aids to interpretation; Facilitating acceptance of accessions.
  • Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part I - Central Authority Practice
    Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part I - Central Authority Practice by Anon
    Guide with sections on Key operating principles; Establishing and consolidating the Central Authority; Abduction applications outgoing & incoming: role of the requesting Central Authority; Access applications: role of requesting and requested Central Authorities & other important functions and issues.
  • Explanatory Report on the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention
    Explanatory Report on the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention by Elisa Perez-Vera
    Report on the general characteristics of the Hague Conference on private international law
  • Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
    Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction by Anon
    Scope of the convention; Central authorities; Return of Children; Rights of Access; General Provisions: Final Clauses;
  • Council Regulation (EC) N. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibilities
    Council Regulation (EC) N. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibilities by Anon
    Regulation EC2201/2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility
  • Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee on the Application of the Brussels IIa Regulation
    Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee on the Application of the Brussels IIa Regulation by Anon
    Report on on the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility
  • An evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of Mediation in cases of International Parental Child Abduction
    An evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of Mediation in cases of International Parental Child Abduction by Trevor Buck
    This research attempts to fill an important gap in the critical research in this field by evaluating the long-term effectiveness of mediation in cases of international parental child abduction and the effectiveness of the agreements reached within mediation
  • International Child Abduction - The effects
    International Child Abduction - The effects by Marilyn Freeman
    This two-year research project considered the long and short term effects of international parental child abduction and included an investigation of the effects on the abducted child through child interviews conducted by senior CAFCASS officers
  • The outcomes for children returned following an abduction
    The outcomes for children returned following an abduction by Marilyn Freeman
    The aim of this research was to investigate the outcome for children returned to a European destination following an abduction concentrating on the lived realities of the international abduction experience for the family members afflicted by it
  • Cross-border family mediation. International parental abduction, custody and access cases
    Cross-border family mediation. International parental abduction, custody and access cases by Christoph Paul & Sybille Kiesewetter
    This book wants to provide both work aids for practical activity and training materials for mediation training in cross-border conflicts involving parents and children.
  • Studies in private international law: Mediating International Child Abduction Cases: The Hague Convention
    Studies in private international law: Mediating International Child Abduction Cases: The Hague Convention by Sarah Vigers
    What is meant by Convention mediation? How can a mediation process fit within the constraints of the Convention? Why offer mediation in Convention cases given the existing legal framework? This book addresses these questions and in so doing seeks to encourage enthusiasm about the use of mediation in the Convention context to greater practice
  • Enlèvement parental international d'enfants
    Enlèvement parental international d'enfants by Christine Guy-Ecabert, Elisabeth Volckrick
    Saisir le juge ou s'engager dans la médiation ?
  • Cross-border parental child abduction
    Cross-border parental child abduction by Anon
    Advice to international couples who separate and where one partner wishes to move to another European country.
  • Reporter: A European divorce with children
    Reporter: A European divorce with children by Anon
    What happens to the kids when their parents, nationals of different EU states, go their separate ways? EuroparlTV examined the case of a French-German couple.
  • Cross-border parental child abduction in the European Union
    Cross-border parental child abduction in the European Union by Dr. Lukas HECKENDORN URSCHELER, Dr. Ilaria PRETELL
    This study aims at analysing the international, European and national legal framework applicable to cross-border parental child abduction, with a view to proposing recommendations for the improvement of the current system.
  • Behind the Curtains of International Child Abduction Proceedings
    Behind the Curtains of International Child Abduction Proceedings by Anca Crihana, Anca-Raluca Sas & Tudor-Cristian Ciobanu
    Have you ever heard about parents abducting their own child to another country? A parent takes away his child from the other parent or he refuses to return the child. What about the child’s best interests? What does the child actually want? What is his/her perspective on the abduction? Is it important to hear the voice of the child? Should the judge give weight to his/her testimony?
  • The Need for Concentrated Jurisdiction in Handling Parental Child Abduction Cases in the United States
    The Need for Concentrated Jurisdiction in Handling Parental Child Abduction Cases in the United States by Keelikolani Lee Ho
    Taking examples from the international community, this comment explores the arguments for and against changing jurisdiction in the United States. This comment also provides a discussion of judicial best practices and stresses the need to expedite the return of abducted children.
  • Children on the Move, Family Tracing and Needs Assessment - Guidelines for Better Cooperation between Professionals Dealing With Unaccompanied Foreign Children in Europe - relatorio da IJJO
    Children on the Move, Family Tracing and Needs Assessment - Guidelines for Better Cooperation between Professionals Dealing With Unaccompanied Foreign Children in Europe - relatorio da IJJO by Anon
    The report suggests some practical steps to favour the creation of a more connected network of practitioners and associations, to foster cooperation in practice as well as on a more strategic level.
  • “Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances
    “Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances by Veerle Pashley, Els Enhus, Mark Leys
    Research within the framework of developing a “Child Alert system”, a project coordinated by Child Focus.
  • Child Alerts for missing children: need for a balanced and integrated approach
    Child Alerts for missing children: need for a balanced and integrated approach by Missing Children Europe
    Endangered missing children for which a child alert system can be of use constitute an average 1 to 2% of the total cases of missing children. While child alert systems can be of use in those 1 to 2%, the overall problem of missing children - of which an average 60% concern children running away from situations of conflict, abuse, violence and neglect - requires a much more comprehensive approach, including measures aimed at prevention and empowerment.
  • Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK
    Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK by ECPAT UK and Missing People
    Following on from their ground-breaking 2016 report Heading Back to Harm, leading charities ECPAT UK and Missing People have revisited the issue using 2017 data to assess what has changed. This report shows that trafficked and unaccompanied children are still going missing from care at an alarmingly high rate.
  • Missing Persons A handbook of research
    Missing Persons A handbook of research by Karen Shalev Greene and Llian Alys
    This groundbreaking book brings together for the first time ideas and expertise across this vast subject area into one interconnected publication. It explores the subjects of missing children, missing adults, the investigative process of missing person cases, and the families of missing persons.
  • The cultural nature of missing
    The cultural nature of missing by Joe Apps
    The notions of trying to define 'missing' and 'missingness' are fascinating. Many people, who are reported to authorities as being missing by family and friends, do not consider themselves as missing persons; when found, they are surprised that they have been considered as 'missing'. Adults have rights to do as they please and also the right to be forgotten.
  • Figures and Trends 2015
    Figures and Trends 2015 by Missing Children Europe
    Every year Missing Children Europe collects data and statistics on missing children reported to hotlines for missing children active in all EU Member States and to the Cross Border Family mediator network.
  • The SIAMSECT files
    The SIAMSECT files by Vermuelen, G., Balcaen, A., Di Nicola, A., & Cauduro, A.
    Development of EU template and collection plan for statistical information and analysis on missing and sexually exploited children and trafficking in human beings in order to have reliable and comparable collection and analysis of indicators and other data, as well as enabling communication between EU, other EU bodies and third party organisations.
  • Practical guidance on preventing and responding to unaccompanied children going missing
    Practical guidance on preventing and responding to unaccompanied children going missing by Federica Toscano, Delphine Moralis, Jan Murk, Rebecca O’Donnell
    This handbook aims to stimulate and disseminate practices on how to better cooperate in prevention, response and after care of missing unaccompanied children.
  • National estimates of missing children: An overview
    National estimates of missing children: An overview by Sedlak, A. J., Finkelhor, D., Hammer, H., & Shultz, D. J.
    Report summarising findings from the Second National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children. National estimates of missing children based on surveys of households, juvenile residential facilities, and law enforcement agencies.
  • Business Case-Situation Report: Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children and Young People Project
    Business Case-Situation Report: Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children and Young People Project by Ian Jones
    Findings from the Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children Workshops
  • Children's rights must be a priority in the strategic guidelines
    Children's rights must be a priority in the strategic guidelines by Anon
    This submission's aim is to raise awareness among EU countries in Children disappearances especially those affected by migration. More support is needed by creating institutions that will help them.
  • The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction?
    The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction? by Zgoba, K.
    Outlines the history and activation process of the Amber Alert, as well as the challenges and advantages experienced by the agencies involved.
  • Position paper: Child tracking devices
    Position paper: Child tracking devices by Missing Children Europe
    A tracking device is an electronic security mechanism which allows monitoring the location of a person or an object. Over the past years, many tracking devices have been developed enabling adults to monitor and locate their children. This paper outlines Missing Children Europe's research and opinion on the issue of using child tracking devices.
  • Missing children figures and trends 2014
    Missing children figures and trends 2014 by Missing Children Europe
    An annual data collection exercise to collect data on the numbers, categories and trends of missing children in Europe based on calls and cases dealt with by 116 000 missing children hotlines across Europe. While effective and standardised data collection mechanisms are lacking in Europe, this annual review provides for one of the only reliable and updated sources of information on missing children for the past year.
  • Missing and abducted children: A law enforcement guide to case investigation and program management
    Missing and abducted children: A law enforcement guide to case investigation and program management by Eds: Preston Findlay, Robert G Lowery
    Guide to assist law enforcement in the search for missing children. Its two goals are to provide (1) Police Officers with a step by step info. On how to respond to and investigate missing child cases, and (2) Administrators with the programmatic framework to manage the missing-child response within their agency's jurisdiction
  • Investigating missing children cases: a guide for first responders and investigators
    Investigating missing children cases: a guide for first responders and investigators by Sprague, D. F.
    Provides a solid training guide on missing children investigative techniques, enabling law enforcement professionals to respond confidently with a plan of action that offers the best possible chance for a positive outcome.
  • INTERACT: Report on multi-agency practical simulations on fictional cases in Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden
    INTERACT: Report on multi-agency practical simulations on fictional cases in Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden by Missing Children Europe
    This report illustrates the implementation and the results of the simulations of cases of missing children in migration is order to test practices and procedures for multi-agency collaboration at national and cross-border level.
  • The effectiveness of supermarket posters in helping to find missing children
    The effectiveness of supermarket posters in helping to find missing children by Lampinen, J. M., Arnal, J., & Hicks, J. L.
    The research addresses the question of how effective Supermarket Posters are in Helping to Find Missing Children
  • Missing Children in the European Union Mapping, data collection and statistics
    Missing Children in the European Union Mapping, data collection and statistics by European Commission
    Collected and analysed data, and developed the basis to improve the mechanisms involved when children go missing in the 27 EU Member States.
  • Missing Children Memorandum to the EU
    Missing Children Memorandum to the EU by Delphine Moralis
    Recommendations on effective European strategies regarding the cross-border problem of missing children.
  • Looking back: 15 years of prevention and responses to missing children in the European Union
    Looking back: 15 years of prevention and responses to missing children in the European Union by Delphine Moralis
    In 2001, the Council of the European Union adopted a Resolution on the contribution of civil society in finding missing or sexually exploited children under the Belgian Presidency of the Council of the EU. The Resolution coincided with the launch at the European Parliament of the European Federation for Missing and Sexually Exploited Children - now operating under the name Missing Children Europe. It also announced the beginning of a series of initiatives taken at the level of the EU to protect children from going missing. Measures taken over the past 15 years have included legislation, policy and funding, often promoting a public private partnerships response involving a broad range of stakeholders at different levels. The presentation will outline and contextualise some of these key European initiatives and their impact at national level, including the latest data on the caseload of hotlines for missing children reachable in 29 European countries through the same European telephon
  • Once missing - Never forgotten?
    Once missing - Never forgotten? by Mette Drivsholm, Delphine Moralis, Dr. Karen Shalev-Greene, Dr. Penny Woolnough
    To date, few attempts have been made to evaluate the effectiveness of publicity campaigns, all of which were carried out in the USA. While scarce, the research tends to reveal disappointing results and suggest that publicity appeals don’t necessarily positively impact the investigation or search. The dissemination of images of missing children furthermore raises potential issues regarding the impact that it may have on the protection of the child’s privacy and overall wellbeing. Others however argue that appeals can help to gather vital information from the public and safeguard children at risk, with Child Alert systems in particular having been credited for safeguarding missing children (OJJPD, 2016). These views call for further research to ensure the effectiveness of publicity appeals in their potential of saving lives, while limiting the negative impact for missing children and their families.
  • Family Factors and Runaway Missing Children: A Review of Theories and Research
    Family Factors and Runaway Missing Children: A Review of Theories and Research by Ravi Shankar B. G., Ravindra D.Gadkar
    This paper reviews the research that has investigated the relationship between family factors and runaway incidence of Children. It also examines the prominent theories to understand runaway phenomena. It aims to assist practitioners and policy makers who work with children and families to make evidence informed decisions
  • Still Hidden
    Still Hidden by Nicola Sharp
    The article underlines and explores the possible link between children that go missing and child sexual exploitation.



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