Missing Children Publication Hub

The publications in this section contain the results of our research as well as curated research on topics and issues relevant to missing children in Europe and the world. Example of the type of research you can find are understanding the causes of the different types of missing children cases in Europe, policy on missing children, search and rescue operations and family support. The menu and submenu options below will help you find what you're looking for.

If you'd like to share relevant research with us, please send the title, a link and description of the research to info@missingchildreneurope.eu.

Missing Children Publication Hub

Child Trafficking

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Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK (by ECPAT UK and Missing People)



Following on from our ground-breaking 2016 report Heading Back to Harm: A study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK, leading charities ECPAT UK and Missing People have revisited the issue using 2017 data to assess what has changed. Still in Harm's Way: An update report on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK shows that trafficked and unaccompanied children are still going missing from care at an alarmingly high rate.



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  • Child Exploitation in the 21st Century
    Child Exploitation in the 21st Century by Daniel D. Broughton
    New technology has changed how adults take advantage of children with a variety of new tools available. Victimisation has taken on new characteristics and internet, digital photography and ease of travel have all had an impact.
  • Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system
    Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system by Rowena Fong, Jodi Berger Cardoso
    An overall analysis and overview of child trafficking in the USA.
  • Guardianship for Children Deprived of Parental Care
    Guardianship for Children Deprived of Parental Care by Anon
    Handbook designed to help standardise guardianship practice, ensuring also that it is better equipped to deal with the specific needs of child victims of trafficking.
  • Lost kids, lost futures. The European Union's response to Child Trafficking
    Lost kids, lost futures. The European Union's response to Child Trafficking by Mirjam Van Reisen, Ana Stefanovic
    Paper looking at how the European Union (EU) has chosen to respond to this challenge and assesses critically the legal, policy and implementation framework put in place to fight child trafficking.
  • Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration
    Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration by Eglantina Gjermeni, Mary P.Van Hook, Saemira Gjipali, Lindita Xhillari, Fatjon Lungu, Anila Hazizi
    Study to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking experience.
  • A Broad Vision to Put Children First : Child Trafficking in Europe
    A Broad Vision to Put Children First : Child Trafficking in Europe by UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
    Child trafficking occurs in virtually all countries in Europe. Children are trafficked across borders, but they are also trafficked within countries. Internal trafficking is reported to occur in every second European country.
  • Study on high-risk groups for trafficking in human beings
    Study on high-risk groups for trafficking in human beings by Alessandra Cancedda (Ecorys), Barbara De Micheli (Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini), Dafina Dimitrova (Ecorys) and Brigitte Slot (Ecorys)
    his study is a deliverable of the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016, which recognised that vulnerable groups, such as children, are at greater risk of human trafficking.
  • Precious Children in a Heartless World? The Complexities of Child Trafficking in Marseille
    Precious Children in a Heartless World? The Complexities of Child Trafficking in Marseille by Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
    Examines how implicit notions in the concepts of "children" and "home" influence the study of child trafficking.
  • Beyond a Snapshot: Learning lessons from the Terre des Hommes International Campaign against Child Trafficking (2001-2011)
    Beyond a Snapshot: Learning lessons from the Terre des Hommes International Campaign against Child Trafficking (2001-2011) by Anon
    Review of TDH campaign including evaluations, publications and views of TDH staff. Campaign against child trafficking and improvements in methods and programmes to reduce child trafficking and improve protection of children who had been trafficked.
  • Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices
    Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices by Anon
    Report identifying that the EU must provide better legislation to combat child trafficking and that the protection and care of victims must be improved.
  • Strategic Threat Assessment on Child Trafficking in the UK
    Strategic Threat Assessment on Child Trafficking in the UK by Anon
    Report providing an assessment of national strategic trends, informs police, UKBA, children's services, NGOs. Aids prevention and prosecution of those exploiting children. Recommends partnerships between agencies and best practice.
  • Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked
    Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked by Anon
    Guidance on how professionals should act when in contact with young children that been trafficked.
  • Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK
    Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK by Bokhari, F
    Overview of child trafficking in the UK. Highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's immigration status, combining to make these children vulnerable to further harm and at risk from the influence of their traffickers.
  • Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it
    Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it by Mike Dottridge
    Report focusing on what NGOs can do, with the intention of showing them what techniques there are agreement on, and what need further discussion.
  • Moving children? Child trafficking, child migration, and child rights
    Moving children? Child trafficking, child migration, and child rights by Julia O'Connell Davidson
    An article aiming to update the reader with the latest information regarding the latest trends, themes and patterns in child trafficking.
  • The Presentation of Child Trafficking in the UK: An Old and New Moral Panic?
    The Presentation of Child Trafficking in the UK: An Old and New Moral Panic? by Cree, V. E, Clapton G and Smith M
    Explores the ways in which the highly emotive subject of child trafficking is presented in the UK. Examining the way the issue has been tackled at two moments in time: the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st century.
  • Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution
    Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution by Alyson Brown
    Examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems.
  • Global Child Trafficking
    Global Child Trafficking by Beyrer, C
    Review of global child trafficking, severity, causes, documentation, what can be done and prevention from the perspective of the USA
  • Identifying child victims of trafficking. Towards solutions and resolutions
    Identifying child victims of trafficking. Towards solutions and resolutions by Elzbieta M. Gozdziak
    Tackles the challenges of identifying trafficked children and offers recommandations in order to advance toward solutions and resolutions.
  • Rumours of Child Trafficking after Natural Disasters
    Rumours of Child Trafficking after Natural Disasters by Heather Montgomery
    Article reviewing how rumours of child trafficking have surfaced quickly after every major natural disaster since the Asian tsunami (although usually proved false or exaggerated).
  • A handbook on planning projects to prevent child trafficking
    A handbook on planning projects to prevent child trafficking by Mike Dottridge
    A handbook aimed at strengthening the protection of children and addressing the needs of children victim of child trafficking.
  • "Exploring Internal Child Sex Trafficking Networks Using Social Network Analysis" by Eleanor Cockbain, Helen Brayley, Gloria Laycock
    A study using social network analysis to explore internal trafficking of children intended for sexual exploitation.
  • Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people
    Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people by Pearce, J. J., Hynes, P., and Bovarnick, S.
    Review of international and UK literature, report on focus groups and interviews of practitioners from children's services, analysis of children and young people trafficked into the UK and within the UK for sexual exploitation.
  • Kids abroad: ignore them, abuse them or protect them?
    Kids abroad: ignore them, abuse them or protect them? by Mike Dottridge
    Focuses on the experience of young people who leave home or travel abroad to seek work or a better life and also on children who are sent away from home by their parents. It explores initiatives that reduce the likelihood that such children will be subjected to exploitation.
  • Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking
    Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking by Bennett-Murphy
    Article examines challenges in the treatment of child survivors of human trafficking. Integrating psychoanalytic theory with models of self-development from the cognitive developmental psychology literature, the paper offers a clinical case presentation of an 11-year-old survivor
  • Working with Trafficked Children and Young People: Complexities in Practice
    Working with Trafficked Children and Young People: Complexities in Practice by Pearce, J. J
    Argues for a review of children's services responses to trafficked children based on a literature search, focus groups, interviews and case studies. Highlights variations in practitioners understanding of trafficking, smuggling, internal trafficking.
  • What YOU can do to protect children on the move
    What YOU can do to protect children on the move by Mike Dottridge
    Handbook to enable organisations to review how they prevent child trafficking and exploitation, and whether they ensure that the best interests of the child guide their activities
  • Protection of children and vulnerable adults: police disclosure of damaging allegations
    Protection of children and vulnerable adults: police disclosure of damaging allegations by Bennion, F. A
    Explores the nature and methods of abuse in child trafficking. It also explores the protection and treatment offered to these vulnerable children.
  • Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands
    Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands by Beddoe, C
    Interviews with social services, other agencies and voluntary sector organisations. Across the three regions there were 80 reported cases of known or suspected child victims of trafficking. 60% of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found.
  • Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis
    Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis by Azhar Abu-Ali, Mona Al-Bahar
    Tackles social aspects of child trafficking including the phenomenon of the feminization of trafficking, and the psychological consequences experienced by the child survivor.
  • Sexual Exploitation:
    Sexual Exploitation: "Internal Trafficking" of Children and Young People at risk in the North East and Cumbria by Cavener, J
    Study exploring the internal trafficking of children and young people for the purpose of sexual exploitation across the North East and Cumbria.
  • The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking
    The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking by Brayley, H., Cockbain, E., & Laycock, G
    Explores how Crime Scripting can benefit crime investigations. This method has recently been used for investigations regarding child sex trafficking.
  • Missing Persons A handbook of research
    Missing Persons A handbook of research by Karen Shalev Greene and Llian Alys
    This groundbreaking book brings together for the first time ideas and expertise across this vast subject area into one interconnected publication. It explores the subjects of missing children, missing adults, the investigative process of missing person cases, and the families of missing persons.
  • The cultural nature of missing
    The cultural nature of missing by Joe Apps
    The notions of trying to define 'missing' and 'missingness' are fascinating. Many people, who are reported to authorities as being missing by family and friends, do not consider themselves as missing persons; when found, they are surprised that they have been considered as 'missing'. Adults have rights to do as they please and also the right to be forgotten.
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    Life’s on Hold: Missing people, private calendars and waiting by Susan Hogben
    This article presents the impact of someone being missing, by considering the role of time in three interrelated fashions.
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    Living in Limbo: The experiences of, and impacts on, the families of missing people by Lucy Holmes
    This small scale, exploratory study aimed to provide a rich and deep account of the ways in which a disappearance can affect a missing person’s family members.
  • The blue light social services? Responding to repeat reports to the police of people missing from institutional locations
    The blue light social services? Responding to repeat reports to the police of people missing from institutional locations by Carol Hayden & Karen Shalev-Greene
    The issues that arise in responding to repeat reports to the policing of people missing from institutional locations (such as hospitals, mental health units and children's residential care) are the focus of this article.
  • 'You are going to drop the ball on this ...': using siblings' stories to inform better interprofessional practice when someone goes missing
    'You are going to drop the ball on this ...': using siblings' stories to inform better interprofessional practice when someone goes missing by Julie Clark
    The need for support from human services workers to complement the role of police is recognised as is the important role of non-government support and advocacy services.
  • Commercial child sexual exploitation online
    Commercial child sexual exploitation online by Anon
    Youtube video actors providing real statement s by a victim and an abuser, of child sexual abuse
  • Keeping mother alive: Psychotherapy with a teenage mother following human trafficking
    Keeping mother alive: Psychotherapy with a teenage mother following human trafficking by Kleinschmidt, L
    Describes therapy with an adolescent girl and her infant daughter, following the girl's escape from illegal detention, physical abuse and forced prostitution, after she was trafficked to the UK from Eastern Europe.
  • An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution
    An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution by Joan A. Reid
    Study utilising modelling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviours or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioural and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Missing and Exploited Children
    Missing and Exploited Children by M. Alexis Kennedy
    Children who leave home as runaways or are forced from their homes without alternative placements (thrownaways) are at great risk for being sexually exploited through commercial sexual activity or prostitution.
  • No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home
    No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home by L Hill, J Taylor, F Richards, S Reddington
    Paper exploring the safeguarding concerns and responses for children and young people who run away or go missing from home
  • Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe
    Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe by Manion, K
    Presents and summarises sources of information regarding the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes within Europe. Highlights the need for education of social care professionals regarding this issue and shows the current gaps within the system.
  • Becoming Sweetie: a novel approach to stopping the global rise of Webcam Child Sex Tourism
    Becoming Sweetie: a novel approach to stopping the global rise of Webcam Child Sex Tourism by Anon
    Terre des Hommes Netherlands' four researchers identified 1,000 predators in 10 weeks. Call for all government agencies in charge of justice to identify and convict 100,000 predators committing the crime of WCST before the end of 2014
  • Whose child now? Fifteen years of working to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the UK
    Whose child now? Fifteen years of working to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the UK by Stacey, L.
    Report exploring the continuing hidden nature of the problem of sexually exploited children and describes what Barnardo's is doing today, while suggesting what action still remains to be taken to further protect exploited children and young people.
  • Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children
    Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children by UNICEF
    The report sheds light on the prevalence of different forms of violence against children, with global figures and data from 190 countries. Where relevant, data are disaggregated by age and sex, to provide insights into risk and protective factors.
  • Improving & Monitoring Protection Systems Against Child Trafficking and Exploitation/ TRANSITIONAL ANALYSIS
    Improving & Monitoring Protection Systems Against Child Trafficking and Exploitation/ TRANSITIONAL ANALYSIS by Daja Wenke
    The IMPACT study notes that child rights violation also persists in Europe, despite the body of international, regional and national legal instruments adopted across the region to prohibit the practice and assist child victims
  • SUMMIT REPORT: Best practices and key challenges on interagency cooperation to safeguard unaccompanied children from going missing
    SUMMIT REPORT: Best practices and key challenges on interagency cooperation to safeguard unaccompanied children from going missing by Federica Toscano, Karen Shalev Greene
    According to Europol, 10,000 unaccompanied migrant children have disappeared within hours of being registered and only a handful have been found since. The study calls for improved cooperation between law enforcement, social workers in shelters and reception centres, guardians, hotlines for missing children and other parties to better prevent and respond to the disappearance of unaccompanied children.
  • Heading back to harm A study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK
    Heading back to harm A study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK by Andrea Simon, Chloe Setter,Lucy Holmes
    This research attempts to quantify the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and children who may be trafficked in the UK care system, as well as the number who go missing from care.
  • Children on the Move, Family Tracing and Needs Assessment - Guidelines for Better Cooperation between Professionals Dealing With Unaccompanied Foreign Children in Europe - relatorio da IJJO
    Children on the Move, Family Tracing and Needs Assessment - Guidelines for Better Cooperation between Professionals Dealing With Unaccompanied Foreign Children in Europe - relatorio da IJJO by Anon
    The report suggests some practical steps to favour the creation of a more connected network of practitioners and associations, to foster cooperation in practice as well as on a more strategic level.
  • Sans Papiers- The Social and Economic Lives of Young Undocumented Migrants
    Sans Papiers- The Social and Economic Lives of Young Undocumented Migrants by Alice Bloch, Nando Sigona, Roger Zetter
    Sans Papiers combines a contemporary account of the theoretical and policy debates with an in-depth exploration of the lived experiences of undocumented migrants in the UK from Zimbabwe, China, Brazil, Ukraine and Turkish Kurdistan.
  • “Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances
    “Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances by Veerle Pashley, Els Enhus, Mark Leys
    Research within the framework of developing a “Child Alert system”, a project coordinated by Child Focus.
  • Child Alerts for missing children: need for a balanced and integrated approach
    Child Alerts for missing children: need for a balanced and integrated approach by Missing Children Europe
    Endangered missing children for which a child alert system can be of use constitute an average 1 to 2% of the total cases of missing children. While child alert systems can be of use in those 1 to 2%, the overall problem of missing children - of which an average 60% concern children running away from situations of conflict, abuse, violence and neglect - requires a much more comprehensive approach, including measures aimed at prevention and empowerment.
  • Figures and Trends 2015
    Figures and Trends 2015 by Missing Children Europe
    Every year Missing Children Europe collects data and statistics on missing children reported to hotlines for missing children active in all EU Member States and to the Cross Border Family mediator network.
  • The SIAMSECT files
    The SIAMSECT files by Vermuelen, G., Balcaen, A., Di Nicola, A., & Cauduro, A.
    Development of EU template and collection plan for statistical information and analysis on missing and sexually exploited children and trafficking in human beings in order to have reliable and comparable collection and analysis of indicators and other data, as well as enabling communication between EU, other EU bodies and third party organisations.
  • Practical guidance on preventing and responding to unaccompanied children going missing
    Practical guidance on preventing and responding to unaccompanied children going missing by Federica Toscano, Delphine Moralis, Jan Murk, Rebecca O’Donnell
    This handbook aims to stimulate and disseminate practices on how to better cooperate in prevention, response and after care of missing unaccompanied children.
  • National estimates of missing children: An overview
    National estimates of missing children: An overview by Sedlak, A. J., Finkelhor, D., Hammer, H., & Shultz, D. J.
    Report summarising findings from the Second National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children. National estimates of missing children based on surveys of households, juvenile residential facilities, and law enforcement agencies.
  • Business Case-Situation Report: Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children and Young People Project
    Business Case-Situation Report: Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children and Young People Project by Ian Jones
    Findings from the Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children Workshops
  • Children's rights must be a priority in the strategic guidelines
    Children's rights must be a priority in the strategic guidelines by Anon
    This submission's aim is to raise awareness among EU countries in Children disappearances especially those affected by migration. More support is needed by creating institutions that will help them.
  • The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction?
    The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction? by Zgoba, K.
    Outlines the history and activation process of the Amber Alert, as well as the challenges and advantages experienced by the agencies involved.
  • Position paper: Child tracking devices
    Position paper: Child tracking devices by Missing Children Europe
    A tracking device is an electronic security mechanism which allows monitoring the location of a person or an object. Over the past years, many tracking devices have been developed enabling adults to monitor and locate their children. This paper outlines Missing Children Europe's research and opinion on the issue of using child tracking devices.
  • Missing children figures and trends 2014
    Missing children figures and trends 2014 by Missing Children Europe
    An annual data collection exercise to collect data on the numbers, categories and trends of missing children in Europe based on calls and cases dealt with by 116 000 missing children hotlines across Europe. While effective and standardised data collection mechanisms are lacking in Europe, this annual review provides for one of the only reliable and updated sources of information on missing children for the past year.
  • Missing and abducted children: A law enforcement guide to case investigation and program management
    Missing and abducted children: A law enforcement guide to case investigation and program management by Eds: Preston Findlay, Robert G Lowery
    Guide to assist law enforcement in the search for missing children. Its two goals are to provide (1) Police Officers with a step by step info. On how to respond to and investigate missing child cases, and (2) Administrators with the programmatic framework to manage the missing-child response within their agency's jurisdiction
  • Investigating missing children cases: a guide for first responders and investigators
    Investigating missing children cases: a guide for first responders and investigators by Sprague, D. F.
    Provides a solid training guide on missing children investigative techniques, enabling law enforcement professionals to respond confidently with a plan of action that offers the best possible chance for a positive outcome.
  • The effectiveness of supermarket posters in helping to find missing children
    The effectiveness of supermarket posters in helping to find missing children by Lampinen, J. M., Arnal, J., & Hicks, J. L.
    The research addresses the question of how effective Supermarket Posters are in Helping to Find Missing Children
  • Missing Children in the European Union Mapping, data collection and statistics
    Missing Children in the European Union Mapping, data collection and statistics by European Commission
    Collected and analysed data, and developed the basis to improve the mechanisms involved when children go missing in the 27 EU Member States.
  • Missing Children Memorandum to the EU
    Missing Children Memorandum to the EU by Delphine Moralis
    Recommendations on effective European strategies regarding the cross-border problem of missing children.
  • Looking back: 15 years of prevention and responses to missing children in the European Union
    Looking back: 15 years of prevention and responses to missing children in the European Union by Delphine Moralis
    In 2001, the Council of the European Union adopted a Resolution on the contribution of civil society in finding missing or sexually exploited children under the Belgian Presidency of the Council of the EU. The Resolution coincided with the launch at the European Parliament of the European Federation for Missing and Sexually Exploited Children - now operating under the name Missing Children Europe. It also announced the beginning of a series of initiatives taken at the level of the EU to protect children from going missing. Measures taken over the past 15 years have included legislation, policy and funding, often promoting a public private partnerships response involving a broad range of stakeholders at different levels. The presentation will outline and contextualise some of these key European initiatives and their impact at national level, including the latest data on the caseload of hotlines for missing children reachable in 29 European countries through the same European telephon
  • Once missing - Never forgotten?
    Once missing - Never forgotten? by Mette Drivsholm, Delphine Moralis, Dr. Karen Shalev-Greene, Dr. Penny Woolnough
    To date, few attempts have been made to evaluate the effectiveness of publicity campaigns, all of which were carried out in the USA. While scarce, the research tends to reveal disappointing results and suggest that publicity appeals don’t necessarily positively impact the investigation or search. The dissemination of images of missing children furthermore raises potential issues regarding the impact that it may have on the protection of the child’s privacy and overall wellbeing. Others however argue that appeals can help to gather vital information from the public and safeguard children at risk, with Child Alert systems in particular having been credited for safeguarding missing children (OJJPD, 2016). These views call for further research to ensure the effectiveness of publicity appeals in their potential of saving lives, while limiting the negative impact for missing children and their families.
  • Family Factors and Runaway Missing Children: A Review of Theories and Research
    Family Factors and Runaway Missing Children: A Review of Theories and Research by Ravi Shankar B. G., Ravindra D.Gadkar
    This paper reviews the research that has investigated the relationship between family factors and runaway incidence of Children. It also examines the prominent theories to understand runaway phenomena. It aims to assist practitioners and policy makers who work with children and families to make evidence informed decisions
  • The European hotline number for missing children: A practical guide for hotline operators
    The European hotline number for missing children: A practical guide for hotline operators by Missing Children Europe
    It contains key recommendations and examples of existing practices that every NGO running, or wishing to run, the 116000 hotline can draw inspiration from and make use of.
  • Still Hidden
    Still Hidden by Nicola Sharp
    The article underlines and explores the possible link between children that go missing and child sexual exploitation.



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