Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Purposes: A Growing Threat in Europe
Presents and summarises sources of information regarding the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes within Europe. Highlights the need for education of social care professionals regarding this issue and shows the current gaps within the system.
The New UN Trafficking Protocol
Janice G. Raymond
Summarizes the key points of the new trafficking in persons protocol, the debate over the definition of trafficking, which was the most contentious part of the Protocol, how the Protocol is being interpreted, and its implications for regional and national policy against human trafficking
Global Child Trafficking
Review of global child trafficking, severity, causes, documentation, what can be done and prevention from the perspective of the USA
The SIAMSECT files
Vermuelen, G., Balcaen, A., Di Nicola, A., & Cauduro, A.
Development of EU template and collection plan for statistical information and analysis on missing and sexually exploited children and trafficking in human beings in order to have reliable and comparable collection and analysis of indicators and other data, as well as enabling communication between EU, other EU bodies and third party organisations.
Meeting the Needs of Sexually Exploited Young People in London
Harper, Z, & Scott, S
A research report based on interviews with social services on the issue of child trafficking, in the UK.
Local Authority Support to Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Young People Changes since the Hillingdon Judgement (2003)
Provides a more detailed and analytical look at local authorities' responses to the Hillingdon judgement and LAC 13. In-depth interviews with staff at 18 local authorities in England. The majority of local authorities interviewed are now providing Section 20 support to 16- and 17-year-old unaccompanied children.
Falling Through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK
Overview of child trafficking in the UK. Highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's immigration status, combining to make these children vulnerable to further harm and at risk from the influence of their traffickers.
"International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Reviews of the context of the Optional Protocol on the Rights of the Child, including the work of the Special Rapporteur, examination of reservations and declarations made by states upon ratification and a preliminary analysis of country reports to the CRC.
Protection of children and vulnerable adults: police disclosure of damaging allegations
Bennion, F. A
Explores the nature and methods of abuse in child trafficking. It also explores the protection and treatment offered to these vulnerable children.
Keeping mother alive: Psychotherapy with a teenage mother following human trafficking
Describes therapy with an adolescent girl and her infant daughter, following the girl's escape from illegal detention, physical abuse and forced prostitution, after she was trafficked to the UK from Eastern Europe.
Breaking the wall of silence: practitioners' responses to trafficked children and young people
Pearce, J. J., Hynes, P., and Bovarnick, S.
Review of international and UK literature, report on focus groups and interviews of practitioners from children's services, analysis of children and young people trafficked into the UK and within the UK for sexual exploitation.
Whose child now? Fifteen years of working to prevent the sexual exploitation of children in the UK
Report exploring the continuing hidden nature of the problem of sexually exploited children and describes what Barnardo's is doing today, while suggesting what action still remains to be taken to further protect exploited children and young people.
Strategic Threat Assessment on Child Trafficking in the UK
Report providing an assessment of national strategic trends, informs police, UKBA, children's services, NGOs. Aids prevention and prosecution of those exploiting children. Recommends partnerships between agencies and best practice.
The value of crime scripting: deconstructing internal child sex trafficking
Brayley, H., Cockbain, E., & Laycock, G
Explores how Crime Scripting can benefit crime investigations. This method has recently been used for investigations regarding child sex trafficking.
"Exploring Internal Child Sex Trafficking Networks Using Social Network Analysis"
Eleanor Cockbain, Helen Brayley, Gloria Laycock
A study using social network analysis to explore internal trafficking of children intended for sexual exploitation.
Moving children? Child trafficking, child migration, and child rights
Julia O'Connell Davidson
An article aiming to update the reader with the latest information regarding the latest trends, themes and patterns in child trafficking.
Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention
Sibnath Deb, Aparna Mukherjee, Ben Mathews
Study to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and then used for commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression from these girls was investigated.
Rumours of Child Trafficking after Natural Disasters
Article reviewing how rumours of child trafficking have surfaced quickly after every major natural disaster since the Asian tsunami (although usually proved false or exaggerated).
Missing Out: A study of child trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands
Interviews with social services, other agencies and voluntary sector organisations. Across the three regions there were 80 reported cases of known or suspected child victims of trafficking. 60% of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found.
Working with Trafficked Children and Young People: Complexities in Practice
Pearce, J. J
Argues for a review of children's services responses to trafficked children based on a literature search, focus groups, interviews and case studies. Highlights variations in practitioners understanding of trafficking, smuggling, internal trafficking.
An exploratory model of girl's vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution
Joan A. Reid
Study utilising modelling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviours or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioural and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.
Exploited vulnerability: Legal and psychological perspectives on child sex trafficking victims
Reid, J. A., & Jones, S.
A review of the historical, neurological, and developmental vulnerabilities typical of child sex trafficking victims reveals serious doubts regarding their ability to control their choices or escape from a trafficker. The uniform shielding of all child victims of sex trafficking from legal culpability for the criminal conduct of traffickers is recommended.
The article underlines and explores the possible link between children that go missing and child sexual exploitation.
The Tragedy and Horror of Human Trafficking of Children and Youth.
Betz, C. L
The extent to which children and youth are trafficked is difficult to estimate because these victims are hidden, silenced and forced to endure continued abuse creating fear and submissiveness. The estimates of children who are trafficking victims range from 600,000 to over 2 million.
The Presentation of Child Trafficking in the UK: An Old and New Moral Panic?
Cree, V. E, Clapton G and Smith M
Explores the ways in which the highly emotive subject of child trafficking is presented in the UK. Examining the way the issue has been tackled at two moments in time: the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 21st century.
The Hague Child Abduction Convention: A Critical Analysis
Provides an up-to-date discussion of the international operation of the Abduction Convention together with in-depth critical academic analysis in light of the objectives of the Convention and other relevant legal norms, such as the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution
Examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems.
Beyond a Snapshot: Learning lessons from the Terre des Hommes International Campaign against Child Trafficking (2001-2011)
Review of TDH campaign including evaluations, publications and views of TDH staff. Campaign against child trafficking and improvements in methods and programmes to reduce child trafficking and improve protection of children who had been trafficked.
Understanding Child Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Micro and Macro Level Analysis
Azhar Abu-Ali, Mona Al-Bahar
Tackles social aspects of child trafficking including the phenomenon of the feminization of trafficking, and the psychological consequences experienced by the child survivor.
Haunted: Treatment of a Child Survivor of Human Trafficking
Article examines challenges in the treatment of child survivors of human trafficking. Integrating psychoanalytic theory with models of self-development from the cognitive developmental psychology literature, the paper offers a clinical case presentation of an 11-year-old survivor
Precious Children in a Heartless World? The Complexities of Child Trafficking in Marseille
Brenda Carina Oude Breuil
Examines how implicit notions in the concepts of "children" and "home" influence the study of child trafficking.
Identifying child victims of trafficking. Towards solutions and resolutions
Elzbieta M. Gozdziak
Tackles the challenges of identifying trafficked children and offers recommandations in order to advance toward solutions and resolutions.
Cross-border parental child abduction
Advice to international couples who separate and where one partner wishes to move to another European country.
Kids abroad: ignore them, abuse them or protect them?
Focuses on the experience of young people who leave home or travel abroad to seek work or a better life and also on children who are sent away from home by their parents. It explores initiatives that reduce the likelihood that such children will be subjected to exploitation.
Commercial child sexual exploitation online
Youtube video actors providing real statement s by a victim and an abuser, of child sexual abuse
Introduction: development, children, and protection
William Myers, Michael Bourdillon
Introduces a special issue of Development in Practice focusing on Child Protection in Development. Places protection of children in context of development studies, outlines current international trends in protection of children and raises questions about them.
Missing Children in the European Union Mapping, data collection and statistics
Collected and analysed data, and developed the basis to improve the mechanisms involved when children go missing in the 27 EU Member States.
Child Exploitation in the 21st Century
Daniel D. Broughton
New technology has changed how adults take advantage of children with a variety of new tools available. Victimisation has taken on new characteristics and internet, digital photography and ease of travel have all had an impact.
Children's rights, as they see them
Eurobarometer study of young people in all 27 member states of the EU which identified the most important issues in terms of their rights and the rights of children in general and the various obstacles children face in exercising these rights.
Vulnerable Children on the run: A European Challenge
Summarizes a speech given by Martin Houghton-Brown given on the subject of children runaways.
A handbook on planning projects to prevent child trafficking
A handbook aimed at strengthening the protection of children and addressing the needs of children victim of child trafficking.
Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices
Report identifying that the EU must provide better legislation to combat child trafficking and that the protection and care of victims must be improved.
Child human trafficking victims: Challenges for the child welfare system
Rowena Fong, Jodi Berger Cardoso
An overall analysis and overview of child trafficking in the USA.
Guardianship for Children Deprived of Parental Care
Handbook designed to help standardise guardianship practice, ensuring also that it is better equipped to deal with the specific needs of child victims of trafficking.
On my own: The accommodation needs of young people leaving care in England
Qualitative research with young people who have used a range of Barnardo's services to find accommodation.
Sexual Exploitation: "Internal Trafficking" of Children and Young People at risk in the North East and Cumbria
Study exploring the internal trafficking of children and young people for the purpose of sexual exploitation across the North East and Cumbria.
Reporter: A European divorce with children
What happens to the kids when their parents, nationals of different EU states, go their separate ways? EuroparlTV examined the case of a French-German couple.
Kids as Commodities? Child trafficking and what to do about it
Report focusing on what NGOs can do, with the intention of showing them what techniques there are agreement on, and what need further discussion.
What the Professionals Know: The Trafficking of Children Into, and Through, the UK for Sexual Purposes
Study to identify the facts on the the trafficking of children for sexual exploitation into and through the UK.
What YOU can do to protect children on the move
Handbook to enable organisations to review how they prevent child trafficking and exploitation, and whether they ensure that the best interests of the child guide their activities
A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls
Laurel D. Edinburgh, Elizabeth M. Saewyc
This study both describes a home-visiting intervention program for young, sexually assaulted runaways (10 - 14 years old) and provides preliminary outcomes from the first 20 female participants.
Lost kids, lost futures. The European Union's response to Child Trafficking
Mirjam Van Reisen, Ana Stefanovic
Paper looking at how the European Union (EU) has chosen to respond to this challenge and assesses critically the legal, policy and implementation framework put in place to fight child trafficking.
Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration
Eglantina Gjermeni, Mary P.Van Hook, Saemira Gjipali, Lindita Xhillari, Fatjon Lungu, Anila Hazizi
Study to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking experience.
Becoming Sweetie: a novel approach to stopping the global rise of Webcam Child Sex Tourism
Terre des Hommes Netherlands' four researchers identified 1,000 predators in 10 weeks. Call for all government agencies in charge of justice to identify and convict 100,000 predators committing the crime of WCST before the end of 2014
No One Runs Away For No Reason: Understanding Safeguarding Issues When Children and Young People Go Missing From Home
L Hill, J Taylor, F Richards, S Reddington
Paper exploring the safeguarding concerns and responses for children and young people who run away or go missing from home
Research and practice in risk assessment and risk management of children and young people engaging in offending behaviours: A literature review
Michele Burman, Sarah Armstrong, Susan Batchelor, Fergus McNeill
A report providing an evaluation on the current literature evaluating the risk assessment and risk management of children engaging in offending behaviours.
National estimates of missing children: An overview
Sedlak, A. J., Finkelhor, D., Hammer, H., & Shultz, D. J.
Report summarising findings from the Second National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children. National estimates of missing children based on surveys of households, juvenile residential facilities, and law enforcement agencies.
Missing Children and Adults: A Cross Government Strategy
Providing the correct and suitable protection for every child and especially protecting those children at risk.
Children Reported "Missing" to the Police: Is It Possible to "Risk Assess" Every Incident?
Carol Hayden, Jo Goodship
Focuses on the high volume of children gone missing in relation to the potential risks posed.
Business Case-Situation Report: Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children and Young People Project
Findings from the Gwent Multi-Agency Missing Children Workshops
Amber Alert: bringing abducted children home
Everything you want to know about the AMBER ALERT.
The Psychology of AMBER Alert: Unresolved Issues and Implications
Monica K. Miller, Timoth Griffin, Samantha S. Clinkinbeard, Rebecca M. Thomas
The issues related to the AMBER ALERT, unresolved issues that arise.
Examining Missing Person Police Reports to Identify the Service Needs of Runaway Youth and Their Families
Examined situational and demographic characteristics in a sample of 47 children missing person police reports.
Investigating missing children cases: a guide for first responders and investigators
Sprague, D. F.
Provides a solid training guide on missing children investigative techniques, enabling law enforcement professionals to respond confidently with a plan of action that offers the best possible chance for a positive outcome.
Missing and abducted children: A law enforcement guide to case investigation and program management
Eds: Preston Findlay, Robert G Lowery
Guide to assist law enforcement in the search for missing children. Its two goals are to provide (1) Police Officers with a step by step info. On how to respond to and investigate missing child cases, and (2) Administrators with the programmatic framework to manage the missing-child response within their agency's jurisdiction
The Amber Alert: Appropriate solution to preventing child abduction?
Outlines the history and activation process of the Amber Alert, as well as the challenges and advantages experienced by the agencies involved.
Children Rough Sleepers in the EU
Professor Kate Moss
Interim report on a project which focuses on homelessness and rough sleeping in children
Children Rough Sleepers in Europe : A Research Methodology
Professor Kate Moss and Paramjit Singh
Paper describing the methodology used in research into homelessness and rough sleeping in children.
Guidance for professionals working with children who may have been trafficked
Guidance on how professionals should act when in contact with young children that been trafficked.
Best practice for launching a cross-border child abduction alert
Describes and documents, based on experiences in several Member States, the key elements of a "child abduction alert" mechanism.
HERE TO LISTEN? Return interviews provision for young runaways
Recommendations on return interviews
The European hotline number for missing children: A practical guide for hotline operators
Missing Children Europe
It contains key recommendations and examples of existing practices that every NGO running, or wishing to run, the 116000 hotline can draw inspiration from and make use of.
Children on the Move, Family Tracing and Needs Assessment - Guidelines for Better Cooperation between Professionals Dealing With Unaccompanied Foreign Children in Europe - relatorio da IJJO
The report suggests some practical steps to favour the creation of a more connected network of practitioners and associations, to foster cooperation in practice as well as on a more strategic level.
Congress of Local and Regional Authorities' toolkit to stop sexual violence against children
The Congress has produced a campaign toolkit in 22 language versions to encourage local and regional authorities in Europe to sign up to the Pact of Towns and Regions to Stop Sexual Violence against Children and take measures at local and regional level.
Repeat reports to the police of missing people: locations and characteristics
Dr. Karen Shalev Greene and Professor Carol Hayden
The locations from which people are reported missing repeatedly in a one year period.
The educational integration of separated minors: a comparison of the situations in France and Quebec
It investigates the educational experiences of thirty-two separated children (unaccompanied minors seeking refuge) in two different regions: the Ile-de-France (Paris) region of France and the province of Quebec in Canada.
Sans Papiers- The Social and Economic Lives of Young Undocumented Migrants
Alice Bloch, Nando Sigona, Roger Zetter
Sans Papiers combines a contemporary account of the theoretical and policy debates with an in-depth exploration of the lived experiences of undocumented migrants in the UK from Zimbabwe, China, Brazil, Ukraine and Turkish Kurdistan.
Undocumented Children in Europe: Invisible Victims of Immigration Restrictions
Luca Bicocchi, Michele LeVoy
This report focuses on the needs of undocumented migrant minors across nine different EU countries.
Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration
It is designed to assist legal practitioners at national and European level, including lawyers, judges, prosecutors, border guards, immigration officials and others working with national authorities, as well as non-governmental organisations and other bodies.
International Child Abduction - The inadequacies of the Law - Thalia Kruger
Sets the problem of child abduction within its international context. It looks at the families in which abductions took place, how preparations were made for an abduction, the quest for the return of the child (including legal proceedings), and the aftermath of the abductions.
My Child? Our Child! Prevention Guide International Child Abduction
A guide intended to be a working tool for professionals who deal with international child abduction in their day-to-day practice. It helps detect a possible risk of international child abduction more quickly, to better assess an effective risk and to launch an appropriate assistance.
Family Mediation in International Family Conflicts
Brunilda Pali & Sandra Voet
Identifies data on potential informants and target groups of national and international training institutes, medication associations and trainers working in family mediation.
Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Mediation
This guide promotes good practices in mediation and other processes in international family disputes concerning children which fall within the scope of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
Transfrontier contact concerning children. General Principles and a Guide to good practice
Guide setting out principles & good practices regarding implementation & application on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, drawing attention to provisions in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children & providing an overall model for constructing an international system of co-operation.
Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part IV - Enforcement
Guide with sections on Measures available in the requested State, their content and the conditions for their application; Legal challenges; The effect of legal challenges on the enforceability of return orders; The enforcement procedure and the actors involved; Promoting voluntary compliance; The child; Co-operation among actors within the requested State; Cross-border co-operation to ensure safe return; Training and education
Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part III - Preventive Measures
Deals with preventive measures. Preventing abduction is a key aim of the 1980 Convention and it is widely acknowledged that it is better to prevent abduction than to have to seek a child's return after abduction
Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part II - Implementing Measures
Guide with sections on Key operating principles; The path to signature and ratification or accession; Methods of implementation; Central Authorities; Organisation of the courts; Legal procedural matters; Legal aid and assistance; Aids to interpretation; Facilitating acceptance of accessions.
Guide to good practice Child Abduction Convention: Part I - Central Authority Practice
Guide with sections on Key operating principles; Establishing and consolidating the Central Authority; Abduction applications outgoing & incoming: role of the requesting Central Authority; Access applications: role of requesting and requested Central Authorities & other important functions and issues.
Explanatory Report on the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention
Report on the general characteristics of the Hague Conference on private international law
Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
Scope of the convention; Central authorities; Return of Children; Rights of Access; General Provisions: Final Clauses;
Council Regulation (EC) N. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibilities
Regulation EC2201/2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility
Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee on the Application of the Brussels IIa Regulation
Report on on the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility
An evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of Mediation in cases of International Parental Child Abduction
This research attempts to fill an important gap in the critical research in this field by evaluating the long-term effectiveness of mediation in cases of international parental child abduction and the effectiveness of the agreements reached within mediation
International Child Abduction - The effects
This two-year research project considered the long and short term effects of international parental child abduction and included an investigation of the effects on the abducted child through child interviews conducted by senior CAFCASS officers
The outcomes for children returned following an abduction
The aim of this research was to investigate the outcome for children returned to a European destination following an abduction concentrating on the lived realities of the international abduction experience for the family members afflicted by it
Cross-border family mediation. International parental abduction, custody and access cases
Christoph Paul & Sybille Kiesewetter
This book wants to provide both work aids for practical activity and training materials for mediation training in cross-border conflicts involving parents and children.
Studies in private international law: Mediating International Child Abduction Cases: The Hague Convention
What is meant by Convention mediation? How can a mediation process fit within the constraints of the Convention? Why offer mediation in Convention cases given the existing legal framework? This book addresses these questions and in so doing seeks to encourage enthusiasm about the use of mediation in the Convention context to greater practice
Media-Friendly Glossary on Migration
Offers journalists a media-friendly glossary of terms in multiple languages to ensure specificity and accuracy in their word choice
A Broad Vision to Put Children First : Child Trafficking in Europe
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
Child trafficking occurs in virtually all countries in Europe. Children are trafficked across borders, but they are also trafficked within countries. Internal trafficking is reported to occur in every second European country.
Disappearing, departing, running away. A surfeit of children in Europe
Study carried out in Belgium, France, Spain and Switzerland on the disappearances of unaccompanied foreign minors placed in institutions. This publication seeks to contribute ways of improving the care of unaccompanied foreign minors arriving in European countries.
"If only someone had listened"
Sue Berelowitz, Jenny Clifton, Carlene Firimin, Sandra Gulyurtlu, Gareth Edwards
Despite increased awareness and a heightened state of alert regarding child sexual exploitation children are still slipping through the net and falling prey to sexual predators. Serious gaps remain in the knowledge, practice and services required to tackle this problem.
Running from hate to what you think is love: The relationship between running away and child sexual exploitation
This report focuses on different cases of sexual exploitation on children. The report has a strong background information, with true examples. It tries to identify the problem of disappearance due to abuse.
Children's rights must be a priority in the strategic guidelines
This submission's aim is to raise awareness among EU countries in Children disappearances especially those affected by migration. More support is needed by creating institutions that will help them.
Improving & Monitoring Protection Systems Against Child Trafficking and Exploitation/ TRANSITIONAL ANALYSIS
The IMPACT study notes that child rights violation also persists in Europe, despite the body of international, regional and national legal instruments adopted across the region to prohibit the practice and assist child victims
Mainstream Children's Rights In EU Legislation, Policy And Budget
This study provides guidance on how effective child rights mainstreaming can be undertaken in the EU's internal policies, budget and legislation. It offers seven steps for effective mainstreaming of children's rights, based on interviews with European Commission and European Council officials as well as contributions from national children's NGOs and academics.
The meaning of online problematic situations for children - Results of qualitative cross-cultural investigation in nine European countries
Eds: David Smahel & Michelle F. Wright
In this report, the findings of qualitative research from the EU Kids Online III study are presented. The research included children who used the internet weekly. The children were from nine European countries: Belgium, the Czech Republic, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
Into independence, not out of care 16 plus care options
An inquiry into the child protection system in England (2012) expressed concern about the level and quality of support received by older young people in, or on the edge of, the care system. The current Staying Put policy applies only to looked after young people living in foster care.
Consultation on Powers to delegate children's social care functions
The Consultation's aim is to make regulations allowing a local authority to enter into arrangements with a body corporate for the discharge of a wider range of its social services functions related to children.
Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children
The report sheds light on the prevalence of different forms of violence against children, with global figures and data from 190 countries. Where relevant, data are disaggregated by age and sex, to provide insights into risk and protective factors.
Ending Violence Against Children: Six Strategies for Action
Provides evidence of effective programmes to address violence against children drawn from UNICEF's decades of experience, and informed by key partners.
The effectiveness of supermarket posters in helping to find missing children
Lampinen, J. M., Arnal, J., & Hicks, J. L.
The research addresses the question of how effective Supermarket Posters are in Helping to Find Missing Children
Missing Children Memorandum to the EU
Recommendations on effective European strategies regarding the cross-border problem of missing children.
Child Alerts for missing children: need for a balanced and integrated approach
Missing Children Europe
Endangered missing children for which a child alert system can be of use constitute an average 1 to 2% of the total cases of missing children. While child alert systems can be of use in those 1 to 2%, the overall problem of missing children - of which an average 60% concern children running away from situations of conflict, abuse, violence and neglect - requires a much more comprehensive approach, including measures aimed at prevention and empowerment.
Position paper: Child tracking devices
Missing Children Europe
A tracking device is an electronic security mechanism which allows monitoring the location of a person or an object. Over the past years, many tracking devices have been developed enabling adults to monitor and locate their children. This paper outlines Missing Children Europe's research and opinion on the issue of using child tracking devices.
Missing children facts and figures 2014
Missing Children Europe
An annual data collection exercise to collect data on the numbers, categories and trends of missing children in Europe based on calls and cases dealt with by 116 000 missing children hotlines across Europe. While effective and standardised data collection mechanisms are lacking in Europe, this annual review provides for one of the only reliable and updated sources of information on missing children for the past year.
Looking back: 15 years of prevention and responses to missing children in the European Union
In 2001, the Council of the European Union adopted a Resolution on the contribution of civil society in finding missing or sexually exploited children under the Belgian Presidency of the Council of the EU. The Resolution coincided with the launch at the European Parliament of the European Federation for Missing and Sexually Exploited Children - now operating under the name Missing Children Europe. It also announced the beginning of a series of initiatives taken at the level of the EU to protect children from going missing. Measures taken over the past 15 years have included legislation, policy and funding, often promoting a public private partnerships response involving a broad range of stakeholders at different levels.
The presentation will outline and contextualise some of these key European initiatives and their impact at national level, including the latest data on the caseload of hotlines for missing children reachable in 29 European countries through the same European telephon
The cultural nature of missing
The notions of trying to define 'missing' and 'missingness' are fascinating. Many people, who are reported to authorities as being missing by family and friends, do not consider themselves as missing persons; when found, they are surprised that they have been considered as 'missing'. Adults have rights to do as they please and also the right to be forgotten.
The challenges of international cross-border investigations
The presentation will highlight the difficulties encountered in international investigations in Europe without borders and beyond the European Union.
The powers of the court of protection in relation to missing adult cases with an international element
Anne-Marie Hutchinson OBE & Katherine Res Pritchard
Introduction and brief summary of the powers of the Court of Protection in relation to cases with an international element.
Multivariate analysis of killing and disposal behaviour during war crimes in Cambodia and Rwanda
Killing and disposing of victims during conflict results in millions of missing persons worldwide, yet there are few empirical models of these actions for organisations to draw on to aid in the search for their locations.
"Missing Abroad: The on-going experience between ITAKA Foundation & NGO Omnibus "
So what could an average family from Poland do in case a member of their family goes missing in a Greek region? Can they afford to travel to Greece and search for their loved ones? How fast can the Police Agencies and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of each country be informed and get involved? Is the cooperation between the authorities effective? What are the benefits of having an international cooperation between two specialised NGOs regarding a missing person’s case?
The impact of missing a loved one: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research
"Lonneke Lenferink, Prof. Dr. Jos de Keijser, Prof. Dr. Paul Boelen, Dr. Ineke Wessel, Doety de Vries "
Is it possible to create a theoretical framework for those who are missing a loved one on the basis of the loss-related frameworks? And what are the clinical consequences for this framework?
A cognitive behavioral intervention for emotional distress among loved ones of missing persons
Prof. Dr. Jos de Keijser, Lonneke Lenferink, Prof. Dr. Paul Boelen
In the current study, we examined to what extent these interventions can be useful in the treatment of persistent distress among loved ones of missing persons.
A Critique on the influence of the “New Abolitionist Movement” upon the Child Trafficking discourse
Echoing Kipling’s sentiment in “The White Man’s Burden” the movement has effectively established an unchallenged dominance over debates with regards to human trafficking, which begs the questions why and who benefits from this influence?
Runaway children in alternative care in Finland
The researcher conducted research into the personal history of runaways through the National Database of Police in Finland.
The 116 000 hotline for missing children
The presentation will briefly recap the background of the 116 000 European hotline for missing children before describing the development of the hotline both geographically and through the implementation of several European Commission funded projects.
In all cases, a search is intended to locate the missing person, to identify any information that may lead to their discovery and to establish whether a crime has been committed against the missing person. Therefore strategies and tactics used when searching for a missing person must be proportionate and appropriate to the circumstances of the ‘missing’ episode.
Beyond Stranger Danger
Research by Parents and Abducted Children Together (PACT) finds that ‘stranger danger’ approaches to keeping children safe are still common place. Many parents talk to children about ‘stranger danger’, and in the aftermath of a local incident police and teachers sometimes run ‘stranger danger’ safety classes. This paper explores the main themes of ‘stranger danger’.
Victim and Offender in Stranger Child Abduction
"Craig Collie & Dr. Karen Shalev-Greene "
It was also found that being accompanied by other children was actually more risky than being unaccompanied, which refutes expectations. Recommendations for program modification based on these findings are discussed.
"National child alert systems: A (preliminary) overview "
While the goal of the system is comparable in all Member States involved, the characteristics, decision making procedures and stakeholders involved differ from one country to the next. The presentation will shed light on some of the key features of systems in place in 10 EU Member States today.
Safe and Well? Police Attitudes to Return Interviews, in Repeat Missing Person Cases
The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes of police officers to return interviews of people who are reported missing repeatedly (e.g. 3 times or more).
Media bias in cases of children who go missing
Dr. Karen Shalev Greene & Jemma Reddin
The aim of this presentation is to examine why some missing children within the UK receive extensive media coverage and are well-known to the wider society, whilst other missing children receive much less coverage and seem to be forgotten about in terms of the public eye.
Running the Risks
Lucy Holmes, Rachel Sturrock
This research project, jointly conducted by UK charities Missing People and Catch 22, explores the links between gang involvement and young people going missing.
Reaching Safe Places
The ‘Reaching Safe Places’ research aimed to explore a range of runaway journeys and highlight the policy and practice change needed to increase the likelihood of young people finding a safe place instead of an unsafe one.
Feasibility of chat for reaching runaways
Adinda Van Poucke
The study shows, as has other research, that only a minority of the children/youth take the step to involve professional help.
Research-informed search strategies- behaviour patterns of vulnerable missing people in lowland areas
Paul Lewis and Dr Pauline Franklin
Using data extracted from 677 searches, over a 15 year period KSAR has analysed information on categories of missing persons, search environment, distance from last known point, location found and situation when found.
UK Lowland Rescue Response- A Case Study
The case study illuminates core features of the literature, local and national policy, and examines the relationship between these and the operational actions of the volunteers working on the front line of the team.
iFIND will be crucial for all those involved in the search for missing persons to provide an effective and timely response.
"Can deceased missing persons be identified by antemortem photographs of the face? "
"Zuzana Caplova , Davide Porta , Daniele Gibelli , Debora Mazzarelli , Danilo De Angelis , Tony Fracasso , Chiarella Sforza , Zuzana Obertova , Cristina Cattaneo "
The study showed that comparison of unfamiliar faces of dead and living persons may be used as a preliminary recognition method only in the absence of any other identifying marker and with great caution.
‘Assessing the effectiveness of the national policing approach to missing person investigations in Scotland’
Dr. Brian Plastow
The research represents one of the largest national studies into the effectiveness of policing responses to missing persons and reveals a complex national picture which includes 600 long-term missing people and over 300 unidentified bodies and numerous unidentified body parts dating back to 1950.
Repeat Reports of Missing Children in Ireland: a comparative perspective
Dr Michael Rush
The paper raises questions about the how the missing children 116 000 service can contribute to the effectiveness of responses to missing and to knowledge about the social experience of going missing.
Connections between actors involved in reception and protection of children
The research looked at law and practice in Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom and one of the three particular areas of research was the disappearance of unaccompanied and separated migrant and trafficked children.
"Safeguarding unaccompanied migrant children from going missing by identifying good practices and training actors on interagency cooperation"
The SUMMIT projects look especially into interagency cooperation between reception centres, guardians, law enforcement and 116 000 hotlines for missing children in prevention and response to the disappearance of unaccompanied children.
Unseen, unreported, unprotected: bringing Asylum Seekers and Refugees into the Missing and Child Sexual Exploitation Agendas
Stela Stansfield and Chinyere Ajayi
Anecdotal evidence has been gathered of children going missing but not reported to the police or any other services. Similarly, cases were identified of children who were being exploited but not known to services.
Risky Business? A study exploring the relationship between behaviour and risk factors in adult missing person cases
Missing person risk assessment methodology has gone through changes since its inception 17 years ago however it is an area of a missing person’s investigation which is still problematic.
Risk Factors in Juvenile Runaways and Children of Late Childhood: A qualitative analysis
"Christos Fousianis, Vanessa Hatzithanasi, Aggeliki Kolokitha, Elena Petsa & Reggina Karantinou "
In this study the main risk factors that lead to youth runaways are presented in depth. The data (62 cases, from both genders since 2008) was collected during the counseling procedure with the families of runaways once the runaway had returned.
Suicide at home versus away: an exploration of the relationship between geo-spatial characteristics and suicide method
Penny Woolnough, Emily Smith, Graham Gibb
165 cases of suicide occurring with the Grampian region of Scotland over a three year period of time (2002-2004) were analysed to look at the relationship between suicide location, method and distance travelled.
Missing on a night out: risk, outcomes and implications (preliminary)
This paper explores the risks and outcomes for men who go missing on a night out.
Living Losses: children alienated from their parents for ten years or more
Living losses is a project which brings together mothers from across the world to raise awareness of the way in which abduction of a child, relocation and alienation are linked to a pattern of coercive control.
How best to resolve cases of parental child abduction?
This paper explores how cases of parental child abduction are best resolved, the challenges we face with countries that are not signatories to the Hague Convention, and whether or not there is a role for mediation in these cases.
Mediation in cases of International Parental Abductions
In 2014, the European Parliament published a study on the use of mediation vs court litigation in cross-border disputes. This research revealed that mediation is 60% less costly then court litigation and that in contrast to court litigation which takes on average 18 months to conclude, a mediation process takes an average of only 43 days.
Mediation Bureau of the Centre International Child Abduction
Birgitte M.J. Beelen
Informing, including and supporting young people when a loved one is missing
Young people are often the forgotten ‘victims’ in the presence of trauma. When a loved one is missing, young people may be the silent onlookers who are quickly whisked out of sight. Their questions may remain unanswered, in an attempt to avoid distress, to protect their ‘innocence’, or out of impotence to find the right words or explanation; but at what cost to the ongoing emotional well-being of the young person?
‘We look at it through a different lens’ How a shared hope between the left behind and those who investigate can enhance the wellbeing of families of missing people.
"Sarah Wayland, Dr Kathy McKay, Dr Geoffrey Glassock "
Families interviewed for the purposes of an Australian based narrative inquiry study exploring hope and ambiguous loss referred to the police as both “hope enablers” and “hope detractors” in their response to loss.
Carers role in the search for missing people living with dementia
Dr. Karen Shalev-Greene, Prof. Charlotte Clarke, Prof. Francis Pakes, Lucy Holmes
The aim of this presentation is to explore patterns of reporting missing episodes to the police by those who care for people living with dementia and to critically assess the decisions, search patterns and strategies by carers of people who live with dementia when someone with dementia goes missing.
The search for missing persons- The Belgian approach
Children on the move
Extent and profile of long term disappearances
law enforcement, missing persons, long term disappearances
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Online- A Strategic Assessment
European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) – Europol
The aim of this assessment is to identify current trends in production, distribution and access to
commercial child abusive material (CAM), based on the insight and expertise of EFC
members, as well as observations of EU Member States law enforcement representatives.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Online- A Strategic Assessment
European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) – Europol
The aim of this report is to provide an update to the Strategic Assessment
of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Online published in October 2013 in the
framework of European Financial Coalition (EFC). In addition to presenting the 2013 facts and
figures, it also looks at other essential factors in this area.
Adult missing persons: Statistical identification of behavioural themes
Penny Woolnough, Emily Bonny, Louise Almond
The aim of this research is to expand on the understanding of missing people by outlining the behaviours exhibited by adults while they are missing and determining if distinct behavioural themes exist.
CHILD ABDUCTION: RECENT JURISPRUDENCE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Paul Beaumonta, Katarina Trimmingsa, Lara Walkera and Jayne Hollidaya
This article examines how the European Court of Human Rights has clarified its jurisprudence on how the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention Article 13 exceptions are to be applied in a manner that is consistent with Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights
Child Abduction by a Parent or Exercising Parental Authority: Balancing European and National Regulations
The study aims to achieve normative distinction between the kidnapping of a child and exercise parental authority through the legal conditions in which such an act requires state intervention.
Protecting the Best Interests of the Child: International Child Abduction and the European Court of Human Rights
Helen Keller and Corina Heri
In its case law on international child abduction, the European Court of Human Rights (ecthr) seeks to interpret the European Convention on Human Rights (echr) in conformity with the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Both instruments safeguard the best interests of abducted children, but in different ways.
Missing Children: A Two Way Approach
Pooja Jaswani*, Kratika Singh Chauhan, Tanya Tyagi
This project on missing children was deliberated upon the media reports on the increase of the number of missing children in year 2013-2014. A thorough investigation was conducted in classifying the various trends in the increase of the registered number of missing cases in Delhi.
Policies, practices and data on unaccompanied minors in the EU Member States
All policies relating to unaccompanied minors released by the European Commission.
Missing, Lost, and Displaced Children in Postwar Germany: The Great Struggle to Provide for the War’s Youngest Victims
This article explores the struggle to locate, identify, and provide for missing, lost, and displaced German children after 1945.
Facial identification of children
In situations where comparative material is present, for example, child pornographic material, or the captured sighting of a missing individual, the potential to use facial comparison techniques to aid identification is an appealing one.
Cut Off From Justice: The impact of excluding separated migrant children from legal aid
Dr Helen Connolly, Ilona Pinter
A new report by The Children's Society "Cut Off From Justice: The impact of excluding separated migrant children from legal aid" finds that the removal of legal aid for most immigration cases means that many children, including those in local authority care, are at risk of abuse or exploitation because their immigration status cannot be resolved, increasing their vulnerability.
Read about the Guardianship consultation and other latest developments relating to missing
How to ensure undocumented migrants’ right to housing and shelter
PICUM together with FEANTSA and EAPN launch their new report outlining
strategies and good practices to overcome barriers for undocumented migrants to access housing and shelter.
Results of public consultation “EU guidance on integrated child protection systems”
Child Abduction: European and Russian Perspectives
N Rostovtseva, Etienne Pataut
The paper studies one of the most topical issues arousing in international private law, i.e. internationalabduction of children by one of the parents
FAQs on child traffiking
ECPAT UK published a new booklet to empower practitioners, campaigners, students and the general public to ensure the needs of trafficked children are considered at every level of UK society.
New approaches, alternative avenues and means of access to asylum procedures for persons seeking international protection
Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the workings of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), in order to assess the need and potential for new approaches to ensure access to protection for people seeking it in the EU, including joint processing and distribution of asylum seekers.
Re/integration of trafficked persons. Working with trafficked children and youth
This paper was developed in the context of the Trafficking Victims Re/integration Programme (TVRP), which funds NGO’s in several countries of Southeastern Europe. It is the fifth of a series that aim to shed light on good practices in the area of re/integration as well as on important lessons learned.
INCADAT comprises searchable summaries of decisions, links to the full texts of judgments and compendia of legal analysis in English, French and Spanish. Continually updated, INCADAT is used by judges, Central Authorities, legal practitioners, researchers and others interested in this rapidly developing branch of law.
Statutory guidance on children who run away or go missing states that when a child is found they should be offered an independent return interview), the document endeavors to explain how and why the interview should be conducted.
Sexual Exploitation Project
Details of Missing People's work to support children who are sexually exploited
Trafficked children and 'missing'
An exploration of research linking missing and trafficked children co-written by Missing People and ECPAT UK
Missing 16 and 17 Year Olds
An exploration of why 16 and 17 year olds go missing, what support they have and what their outcomes are.
The UN Convention on the Rights of a Child
An analysis of how the Convention relates to the rights of missing children
Running the Risks: The links between gang involvement and young people going missing
Rachel Sturrock and Lucy Holmes
The UK Missing Persons Bureau estimates that as many as 160,000 children and young people are reported missing every year. Research from the Children’s Society over the past decade has shed some light on this issue and the recent spotlight on CSE has pushed the issue of children and young people going missing up the political agenda. However, the link between gang involvement and going missing from home is still very much unknown, with no specific research or national data collected indicating how many are affected.
Volunteers in British mountain rescue: responding to increasing demand for rescues and a changed relationship with the state
Geoffrey Nichols, Rohan Goel, Tom Nichols, Will Jones
A survey of MR team members and potential recruits reveals a mismatch between potential members' expectation of being engaged in MR and the reality of the increased work supporting non-mountain incidents. This illustrates a potential strain in the motivations of volunteers being used to deliver public services.
Police Search Advisers (PolSAs) and the search for missing people
Lucy Holmes and Penny Woolnough
This research explores: the nature and extent to which PolSAs are involved in missing person cases; the nature of the relationship between PolSAs and SIOs; multiagency working (including other search agencies); the potential personal pressures PolSAs face and strategies to mitigate against these; procedural / process / organisational related aspects of the PolSA role including opportunities for improvement; PolSA training; and encounters and familiarity with families of missing persons.
International Parental Child Abduction and Mediation
Nuria González Martín
The goal of this article is, first, to analyze the operation of the Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in the context of its Guide to Good Practice on Mediation to determine whether such guide will promote Mediation as a useful method for family conflict resolution in cases of international child abduction by one of the parents.
Enlèvement parental international d'enfants
Christine Guy-Ecabert, Elisabeth Volckrick
Saisir le juge ou s'engager dans la médiation ?
Lost from view: Missing persons in the UK
Nina Biehal, Fiona Mitchell and Jim Wade
Thousands of people are reported missing each year, yet very little is known about who they are, why they disappear and what happens to them.
Behind the Curtains of International Child Abduction Proceedings
Anca Crihana, Anca-Raluca Sas & Tudor-Cristian Ciobanu
Have you ever heard about parents abducting their own child to another country? A parent takes away his child from the other parent or he refuses to return the child. What about the child’s best interests? What does the child actually want? What is his/her perspective on the abduction? Is it important to hear the voice of the child? Should the judge give weight to his/her testimony?
Breaking the cycle: Collaborating and behaving differently to improve the outcomes and experiences of missing children
The purpose of this paper is to explore how, by encouraging all key stakeholders to “play nicely and act maturely” to share responsibility, the author was able to improve outcomes for children reported missing to Gwent Police. The paper shows that sharing responsibility is a critical factor in such collaboration, requiring people and agencies to let go of power that usually interferes with a preparedness to avoid blame, a willingness to enjoy the rewards of success and together manage the risks.
Child Abduction, AMBER Alert, and Crime Control Theater
Timothy Griffin & Monica K. Miller
Intense interest in disturbing child abductions by the mass media, public safety organizations, and the public has helped sustain a socially constructed mythology and sporadic “moral panic” about the presumed pervasiveness of this threat to children. The result has often been reactionary “memorial” legislation enacted in response to sensational cases.
Social Psychological Influences on the Popularity of Amber Alerts
Lorie L. Sicafuse & Monica K. Miller
The AMBER Alert system enjoys widespread public support. Yet evidence suggests that the system may be ineffective and have unintended consequences.
Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union
This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation. The research covers four specific areas, namely the type of guardianship systems in place, the profile of appointed guardians, the appointment procedures, and the tasks of the guardians.
Study on high-risk groups for trafficking in human beings
Alessandra Cancedda (Ecorys), Barbara De Micheli (Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini), Dafina Dimitrova (Ecorys) and Brigitte Slot (Ecorys)
his study is a deliverable of the EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016, which recognised that vulnerable groups, such as children, are at greater risk of human trafficking.
Study on prevention initiatives on trafficking in human beings
Among the key findings of the study is that there is no go-standard for assessing the impact of prevention actions but rather a comprehensive and contextual approach should be followed.
The link between: Trafficked children and missing
Every year approximately 250,000 people are reported missing to the police and other agencies across the UK. About two thirds of these reports will be children under 18 (Home Office: 2010), and a proportion of will have been victims of trafficking.
First Implementation report on protection of children against sexual abuse in the circle of trust
Council of Europe
The 1st monitoring round of the implementation of the Lanzarote Convention focuses on the protection of children against sexual abuse in the circle of trust. Two reports will cover this theme in the 26 States (those which were Parties to the Convention at the time the monitoring round was launched)
The role of central authorities in the application of the 1980 Hague Convention on child abduction: A critical analysis of a genuine area of public international law
Dr. Kutlay TELLİ
This article mainly intends to provide a roadmap for Central Authorities regarding the return requests within the meaning of the Hague Convention
The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection?
This article analyses the Grand Chamber judgments in Neulinger and X v. Latvia and considers how compliance with Article 8 ECHR should be achieved in the application of the Hague Convention; prioritising return or reflection? In so doing it also reflects on whether a summary return mechanism can continue to accord with twenty-first century expectations and norms.
“Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances
Veerle Pashley, Els Enhus, Mark Leys
Research within the framework of developing a “Child Alert system”, a project coordinated by Child Focus.
Missing and Exploited Children
M. Alexis Kennedy
Children who leave home as runaways or are forced from their homes without alternative placements (thrownaways) are at great risk for being sexually exploited through commercial sexual activity or prostitution.
SAFETY AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AT STAKE FOR CHILDREN ON THE MOVE: CALL FOR THE EU AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO IMPLEMENT A CHILD RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE IN THE RECEPTION OF MIGRATING CHILDREN
Karin Fagerholm, Rhea Verheul
Children on the move face many safety risks and concerns and when Europe is not proving able to handle the influx of migrants from a child rights perspective, these risks become even more severe. The European Ombudspersons for Children (ENOC) therefore decided to develop this report, to establish an overview of the current safety risks for children on the move in Europe and of the degree to which they have access to their rights, both while travelling to and through Europe and upon arrival in their country of destination.
A survey on the transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on combating sexual absue and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography
Missing Children Europe, ECPAT, eNasco
The main objective of the project was to compare the choice of ‘methods and strategies’ developed by Member States in order to achieve the binding results defined by the Directive and to assess them based on the best interests of the child.
SUMMIT REPORT: Best practices and key challenges on interagency cooperation to safeguard unaccompanied children from going missing
Federica Toscano, Karen Shalev Greene
According to Europol, 10,000 unaccompanied migrant children have disappeared within hours of being registered and only a handful have been found since. The study calls for improved cooperation between law enforcement, social workers in shelters and reception centres, guardians, hotlines for missing children and other parties to better prevent and respond to the disappearance of unaccompanied children.
Dentistry to the rescue of missing children: A review
Nitika Vij, Gulsheen Kaur Kochhar, Sanjay Chachra, Taranjot Kaur
Toothprints enables a unique identification of the missing children not only through the bite impression but also through salivary DNA. Besides the use of Toothprints, a dentist can assist investigating agencies in identifying the missing children in multiple ways, including postmortem dental profiling, labeled dental fixtures, DNA extraction from teeth, and serial number engraving on the children's teeth.
The effectiveness of victim resistance strategies against stranger child abduction:an analysis of attempted and completed cases
Karen Shalev Greene
This article examines resistance strategies thought to reduce the likelihood that a child will be able to overcome an attempted stranger child abduction event.
International child abduction cases in Hungary: A comprehensive summary of statistics, legal framework and important case law
Tamás Dezső Ziegler
This article summarizes the background of child abduction cases related to Hungary, giving a comprehensive analysis of such cases between the period of 2000 and 2014.
Examining 19 years of officially reported child abduction incidents (1995–2013): employing a four category typology of abduction
Jeffrey A. Walsha, Jessie L. Krienerta, Cayla L. Comensa
Child abduction has generated extensive media attention due to deep-seated fear elicited by infamous incidents. This study emphasizes differences across abductors/victims in a four category relationship-based typology, including a newer category – ‘intimate partner abductions’.
“Child Alert”: public information dissemination of child disappearances
Veerle Pashley, Els Enhus, Mark Leys
This report describes the communication trajectory of the Belgian NGO “Child Focus”.
The European Court of Human Rights and the Hague Child Abduction Convention: Prioritising Return or Reflection?
This article analyses the Grand Chamber judgments in Neulinger and X v. Latvia and considers how compliance with Article 8 ECHR should be achieved in the application of the Hague Convention; prioritising return or reflection?
Mourning the Unfound: How We Can Help
This article explores rituals surrounding death-rituals deprived of the mourners of the unfound-and suggests interventions that may be helpful to those struggling with this type of loss.
Ambiguous Loss : Learning to Live with Unresolved Grief
Frozen sadness - what we have when we cannot really know what we have lost. This is what Pauline Boss illuminates, and helps to ease.
Healing loss, ambiguity, and trauma: a community-based intervention with families of union workers missing after the 9/11 attack in New York City
Pauline Boss, Lorraine Beaulieu, Elizabeth Wieling, William Turner and Shulaika LaCruz
A team of therapists from Minnesota and New York workied with labor union families of workers gone missing on September 11, 2001, after the attack on the World Trade Center.
Loss, Trauma and Resilience : Therapeutic Work with Ambiguous Loss
Pauline Boss, the principal theorist of the concept of ambiguous loss, guides clinicians in the task of building resilience in clients who face the trauma of loss without resolution. Boss describes a concrete therapeutic approach that is at once directive and open to the complex contexts in which people find meaning and discover hope in the face of ambiguous losses
Ambiguous loss: a complicated type of grief when loved ones disappear
Pauline Boss, Janet R Yeats
Ambiguous loss is an unclear loss that continues without resolution or closure. The authors present six guidelines about meaning, mastery, identity, ambivalence, attachment, and hope.
Missing siblings: seeking more adequate social responses
Julie Clark, Jeni Warburton, Cheryl Tilse
This paper links knowledge of siblings, loss and grief to an understanding of this phenomenon. It presents the methodology and findings of an exploratory, qualitive study into the expériences of nine adult siblings of long-term missing people in Australia and presents the themes drawn from their account.
Missing : Persons and Politics
Jennifer Ann Edkins
In Missing, Jenny Edkins highlights stories from a range of circumstances that shed light on this critical tension: the aftermath of World War II, when millions in Europe were displaced; the period following the fall of the World Trade Center towers in Manhattan in 2001 and the bombings in London in 2005; searches for military personnel missing in action; the thousands of political "disappearances" in Latin America; and in more quotidian circumstances where people walk out on their families and disappear of their own volition.
'You are going to drop the ball on this ...': using siblings' stories to inform better interprofessional practice when someone goes missing
The need for support from human services workers to complement the role of police is recognised as is the important role of non-government support and advocacy services.
In the Loop: young people talking about missing
Families and Friends of Missing Persons Unit in collaboration with Emily, Izi, Lily and Max.
This book is written by and for children and young people who live with having someone missing in their lives. That missing person might be a parent or grandparent, a brother or sister, an aunt, uncle or cousin.
Haunting Argentina: Synecdoche in the protests of mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
Karen A. Foss
This essay analyzes the protests of the Mothers by means of the metaphor of haunting and suggest that their symbols‐diapers as kerchiefs, slogans and sayings, circling the plaza, and marches‐enact a haunting by means of synecdoche.
Unresolved Loss: Issues in Working with Adults Whose Siblings were Kidnapped Years Ago
Geoffrey Greif, Duane T. Bowers
This article describes the common issues raised by five adults (18-60 years old) whose siblings were kidnapped during their childhood or in early adulthood.
Ambiguous Loss and Its Effects on Children: Implications and Interventions for School Counselors
K Guidry, C. Simpson, T Test, C Bloomfield
The purpose of this article is to define and describe the concept of grief and how it may explain challenging behaviors with students. Additionally, this definition will be expanded by introducing the definition of ambiguous grief.
When hope and grief intersect: Rates and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved individuals and relatives of disappeared persons in Colombia
Carina Heeke, Nadine Stammel, Christine Knaevelsrud
This study investigates prolonged grief disorder and its risk factors in a sample of persons who lost a significant other to disappearance as compared with a sample of bereaved individuals, both groups having experienced displacement due to the armed conflict in Colombia.
Living in Limbo: The experiences of, and impacts on, the families of missing people
This small scale, exploratory study aimed to provide a rich and deep account of the ways in which a disappearance can affect a missing person’s family members.
When the Search is Over: Reconnecting missing children and adults
This project explored the ways in which missing people reconnect to family, carers or a place of safety, and makes recommendations for improvements in the way reconnections are facilitated and supported.
Life’s on Hold: Missing people, private calendars and waiting
This article presents the impact of someone being missing, by considering the role of time in three interrelated fashions.
“It’s the hope that hurts” Best practice in counselling models relevant to families and friends of missing persons
Hunter Institute of Mental Health
In early June of 2001 the families and friends of Missing persons unit operating within the NSW attorney General’s department out of the victims of Crime Bureau contracted the hunter institute of Mental health to investigate and report on best practice model/s relevant to families and friends of missing persons.
Missing persons in Australia
Marianne James, Jessica Anderson and Judy Putt
This paper identifies key priorities for further development to improve practices related to reducing the incidence of missing persons and the provision of services.
Communication, Liminality, and Hope: The September 11th Missing Person Posters
Kevin T. Jones, Kenneth S. Zagacki, Todd V. Lewis
In this paper, we argue that the posters represent a powerful response to a traumatic and in some ways unprecedented situation (September 11, 2001), a response that transformed the death of loved ones from a reality or future certainty into a probability made possible by the searchers' desire, emotions, or imagination.
The Kosovo Family Support Project: Offering Psychosocial Support for Families with Missing Persons
Mary Ellen Keough, Margaret F. Samuels
This article presents a case that illustrates the vital role that social workers and other mental health and public health workers provided to support families following the 1999 conflict between Serb forces and Kosovar Albanians in Kosovo.
The Missing Link in Resilience Research
Shaul Kimhi, Yohanan Eshel
This article is a most comprehensive and important review of resilience research which presents an intellectual challenge to every scholar in this field.
Traumatic Loss in Children and Adolescents
Anthony P. Mannarino , Judith A. Cohen
This article discusses the distinctive features of CTG, how it is different from normal bereavement, how this condition is assessed, and promising treatments for children who experience a traumatic loss.
An Uncertain Hope: Missing People’s overview of the theory, research and learning about how it feels for families when a loved one goes missing
This guidance provides an overview of the currently available research, policy, knowledge and understanding about what it is really like to cope when someone you love is missing.
Family Feedback Survey Report
Missing People's annual Impact Report shows how we are meeting the needs of missing children, missing adults and their families across the UK.
Lessons from Australia: Developing a new counselling service for families when someone is missing
This report describes Helen's trip and the lessons she learned.
NCIC Missing Person and Unidentified Person Statistics for 2011
The National Crime Information Center’s (NCIC) Missing Person File was implemented in 1975. Records in the Missing Person File are retained indefinitely, until the individual is located, or the record is canceled by the entering agency.
Families living with absence: Searching for missing people
Hester Parr and Olivia Stevenson
The report raises many relevant issues for working with families of missing people, but also highlights the need for families to have time and space to remember.
Ambiguous Loss in a Non-Western Context: Families of the Disappeared in Postconflict Nepal
Ambiguous loss is explored in a different cultural context through a study of the families of persons disappeared during Nepal's decade-long Maoist insurgency.
What about me? Coping with the abduction of a brother or sister
US Department of Justice
This publication is the effort of those who have lived the nightmare of losing a sister or brother. Eight siblings joined with the Office of Justice Programs to write this guide.
Supporting those who are left behind A counselling framework to support families of missing persons
Each year in Australia, 35,000 people are reported missing to police. For every missing person’s case reported, at least 12 people are affected whether it is emotionally, psychologically, physically or financially. That means that a significantly large number of people will endure the trauma associated with the unresolved loss of a loved one.
Holding on to hope: A review of the literature exploring missing persons, hope and ambiguous loss
Sarah Waylanda, Myfanwy Maplea, Kathy McKaya & Geoffrey Glassocka
This review explores hope for families of missing people.
The Trauma and Complicated Grief of Ambiguous Loss
Ambiguous loss is a newly identified type of loss that occurs when a loved one is physically present, but psychologically absent. Dementia is just one example.
Breaking the cycle: Collaborating and behaving differently to improve the outcomes and experiences of missing children
The purpose of this paper is to explore how, by encouraging all key stakeholders to “play nicely and act maturely” to share responsibility, the author was able to improve outcomes for children reported missing to Gwent Police.
"Cut Off From Justice: The impact of excluding separated migrant children from legal aid
Dr Helen Connolly, Ilona Pinter
In April 2013, the Government implemented changes to the legal aid system which means that separated or unaccompanied migrant children - those without a parent or guardian in this country - are no longer be able to get free support with their immigration cases. The report focus on the issue.
Publication: Human Rights Indicators for Migrants and their Families
Pablo Ceriani Cernadas, Michele LeVoy, Lilana Keith, Luis Campos
The working paper shows that the use of indicators for the human rights of migrants can facilitate and monitor progress and compliance with legal obligations; that the fulfilment of migrants’ rights is an essential tool for social integration in multicultural societies, and that migrants’ rights indicators promote evidence based policy-making.
Implementation Handbook: putting the investing in children recommendation into practice
The 2013 European Commission Recommendation “Investing in Children: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage” presented a comprehensive policy approach to child poverty and well-being. A new Implementation Handbook by Eurochild and its partners in the EU Alliance for Investing in Children, shows how member states can translate the policy guidelines into action.
Protecting undocumented children: Promising policies and practices from governments
Focusing on the areas of education, health care, protection from violence and non-detention, this report seeks to support and disseminate such policies, by presenting several promising examples from governments at all levels, alongside some available data and relevant policy documents at EU level.
Children’s rights in return policy and practice in Europe
A discussion paper on the return of unaccompanied and separated children to institutional reception or family
Emerging Patterns and Trends Report #1 Youth-Produced Sexual Content
Internet Watch Foundation
This Paper introduces the key findings of a quantitative study of youth-produced sexual content online.
UNICEF releases report “children’s rights in return policy and practice in Europe’’
UNICEF has concerns about the situation and the protection of unaccompanied and separated children who may be returned to their country of origin. One of the main recommendations of the report is that return policies should be made child proof and in line with children's rights.
Cross-border parental child abduction in the European Union
Dr. Lukas HECKENDORN URSCHELER, Dr. Ilaria PRETELL
This study aims at analysing the international, European and national legal framework applicable to cross-border parental child abduction, with a view to proposing recommendations for the improvement of the current system.
Guidelines on the Applicable Criteria and Standards relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Alternatives to Detention
Guidelines on the Applicable Criteria and Standards relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Alternatives to Detention
Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) and the International Detention Coalition (IDC), Monitoring Immigration Detention: Practical Manual
The rights to liberty and security of person are fundamental human rights, reflected in the international prohibition on arbitrary detention, and supported by the right to freedom of movement. While States have the right to control the entry and stay of non-nationals on their territory, this right needs to be exercised while respecting refugee and human rights law standards.
Beyond Detention: A Global Strategy to support governments to end the detention of asylum-seeker and refugees
Putting people in detention has become a routine – rather than exceptional – response to the irregular entry or stay of asylum-seekers and migrants in a number of countries. Some governments view detention as a means to dissuade irregular migration to or applying for asylum in their territories. While acknowledging that irregular entry or stay may present many challenges to States, detention is not the answer.
Bulgaria: progress needed to better protect children, improve media freedom and uphold the human rights of migrants
Counsil of Europe
Referring to reported cases of violence perpetrated in several types of institutions for children, both among children and by adults, the Commissioner called on the Bulgarian authorities to investigate such allegations and protect children from further harm.
Global status report on violence prevention 2014
Alexander Butchart and Christopher Mikton
This report focuses on interpersonal violence, which is violence that occurs between family members, intimate partners, friends, acquaintances and strangers, and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse.
Practical guidance on preventing and responding to unaccompanied children going missing
Federica Toscano, Delphine Moralis, Jan Murk, Rebecca O’Donnell
This handbook aims to stimulate and disseminate practices on how to better cooperate in prevention, response and after care of missing unaccompanied children.
Figures and Trends 2015
Missing Children Europe
Every year Missing Children Europe collects data and statistics on missing children reported to hotlines for missing children active in all EU Member States and to the Cross Border Family mediator network.
An exploratory study of residential child abduction: An examination of offender, victim and offense characteristics
J Shelton, M Hilts, M MacKizer
Child abduction is every parent and community's worst nightmare. Specifically, a
child abducted from inside a residence can be a source of great panic and give the perception that the four walls of one's home offer little or no protection from offenders who ...
Terminology Guidelines for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
Susanna Greijer and Jaap Doek
Communication is of critical importance in our efforts to respect, protect and implement the rights of the child. In order to make this communication with and between children, parents, governmental officials, professionals and volunteers working with or for children as effective as possible, we need to use terms and concepts that all these actors understand and consider respectful.
The long wait: Filling data gaps relating to refugees and displaced people in Calais camp
A team of 20 researchers conducted a survey investigating the Calais camp’s demographic composition, potential human rights violations occurring amongst the people currently living there, and their future aspirations and plans.
PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR CHILD ABDUCTION BY USING IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM ON INTEL GALILEO BOARD
NOOR HASNI BINTI ABD HADI, HARIYANTI BINTI MOHD SALEH & SALINA BINTI MOHD ASI
This paper describes a real-time system based on image processing algorithms by using Active Appearance Model technique for alignment process. The motivation of this research is the need for reducing children abduction cases.
The Need for Concentrated Jurisdiction in Handling Parental Child Abduction Cases in the United States
Keelikolani Lee Ho
Taking examples from the international community, this comment explores the arguments for and against changing jurisdiction in the United States. This comment also provides a discussion of judicial best practices and stresses the need to expedite the return of abducted children.
Missing Persons: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Disappeared
Derek Congram’s new collection responds to growing public awareness of persons who have disappeared due to armed conflict, repressive regimes, criminal behaviour, and racist and colonial policies towards Indigenous persons and minority populations.
I Minori Vittimi Di Tratta E Sfruttamento: Chi Sono, Da Dove Vengono E Chi Lucra Su Di Loro
Viviana Coppola, Eva Lo Iacono
I bambini e gli adolescenti vittime di lavoro forzato nel mondo - un fenomeno più ampio della tratta e in alcuni casi connesso - sono 168 milioni; tra questi 85 milioni svolgono lavori altamente rischiosi per la loro salute e sicurezza, come il lavoro in agricoltura, in miniera, nell’edilizia o nelle fabbriche.
Missing Migrants in the Mediterranean: Addressing the Humanitarian Crisis
The report details the findings of the ESRC funded Mediterranean Missing project, which was launched as part of a wider £1 million ESRC research programme, in response to the ongoing humanitarian crisis.
Over a period of 12 months a team of researchers worked on the Greek island of Lesbos and in Sicily, Italy - the two main entry points for migrants and refugees into Europe and where a large number of boats carrying migrants have sunk in recent years - and looked at how the authorities deal with the bodies of migrants. They interviewed a range of relevant actors, including local authority employees, NGOs, coastguards, coroners, and funeral office staff, as well as families of missing migrants from Tunisia, Syria and Iraq, to understand their experience.
Stranger child abduction and guardianship: Accompaniment and surveillance in attempted and completed cases
Craig J. R. Collie, Karen Shalev Greene
he Routine Activity Theory construct of capable guardianship is used to examine the features of 78 cases of stranger child abduction, using an outcome-based approach to establishing the effectiveness of various potential sources of guardianship in preventing abduction attempts from becoming completed, and to test widely held and taught beliefs on this subject.
Family Factors and Runaway Missing Children: A Review of Theories and Research
Ravi Shankar B. G., Ravindra D.Gadkar
This paper reviews the research that has investigated the relationship between family factors and runaway incidence of Children. It also examines the prominent theories to understand runaway phenomena. It aims to assist practitioners and policy makers who work with children and families to make evidence informed
Uprooted: THE GROWING CRISIS FOR REFUGEE AND MIGRANT CHILDREN
Uprooted: The growing crisis for refugee and migrant children presents new data that paint a sad and sobering global picture of the lives and situations of millions of children and families affected by violent conflict and other crises that make it seem safer to risk everything on a perilous
journey than to remain at home.
Missing Persons A handbook of research
Karen Shalev Greene and Llian Alys
This groundbreaking book brings together for the first time ideas and expertise across this vast subject area into one interconnected publication. It explores the subjects of missing children, missing adults, the investigative process of missing person cases, and the families of missing persons.
Promoting Inclusion for Unaccompanied Young Asylum Seekers and Immigrants: A DUTY OF JUSTICE AND CARE
The report of a two year transnational project involving government, local authorities NGOs and young asylum seekers.
The blue light social services? Responding to repeat reports to the police of people missing from institutional locations
Carol Hayden & Karen Shalev-Greene
The issues that arise in responding to repeat reports to the policing of people missing from institutional locations (such as hospitals, mental health units and children's residential care) are the focus of this article.
Recognizing Risk: The Attitudes of Police Supervisors to the Risk Assessment Process in Missing Person Investigations
Richard Smith & Karen Shalev Greene
Missing person investigations are widely regarded as a demanding challenge for the police service. This article examines the attitudes and experiences of police supervisors to the risk assessment process in such investigations.
What to do when a child goes missing
This guide gives some simple advice on what steps to
take when a child goes missing, based on our experience and the views of the young people involved.
Heading back to harm A study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK
Andrea Simon, Chloe Setter,Lucy Holmes
This research attempts to quantify the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and children who may be trafficked in the UK care system, as well as the number who go missing from care.
Thematic focus: Family tracing and family reunification
Fundamental Rights Agency
This section looks at the fundamental rights implications of the following practices in more detail:
Recent legislative changes
Better support, better protection: Steps lawyers and guardians can take to better identify and protect trafficked children
This report provides a snapshot of the manner in which children who may have been trafficked into and within five EU states were or were not identified and protected in and up to 2016.
Once missing - Never forgotten?
Mette Drivsholm, Delphine Moralis, Dr. Karen Shalev-Greene, Dr. Penny Woolnough
To date, few attempts have been made to evaluate the effectiveness of publicity campaigns, all of which were carried out in the USA. While scarce, the research tends to reveal disappointing results and suggest that publicity appeals don’t necessarily positively impact the investigation or search. The dissemination of images of missing children furthermore raises potential issues regarding the impact that it may have on the protection of the child’s privacy and overall wellbeing. Others however argue that appeals can help to gather vital information from the public and safeguard children at risk, with Child Alert systems in particular having been credited for safeguarding missing children (OJJPD, 2016). These views call for further research to ensure the effectiveness
of publicity appeals in their potential of saving lives, while limiting the negative impact for missing children and their families.